Mark 10
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again.
Mark 10:1. Καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἀναστὰς, and having arisen from thence) The antithesis is not so much to Capernaum, where He had taught sitting, ch. Mark 9:33; Mark 9:35, as to Galilee, Mark 9:30.—διὰ τοῦ) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.[10]—ὡς εἰώθει, as He had been wont) The habitual acts of Jesus are well worthy of observation: Luke 4:16.

[10] Καὶ πέραν is the reading of BC corrected later, L, Memph. But DGΔ bc Vulg. omit the καὶ. Rec. Text with A reads, διὰ τοῦ πέραν.—ED. and TRANSL.

And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him.
And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you?
And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away.
And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept.
Mark 10:5. Ἔγραψεν, wrote) viz. Moses, the writer of the Pentateuch: ch. Mark 12:19.

But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female.
Mark 10:6. Ἀρχῇς κτίσεως, from the beginning of creation) Therefore there was not any creation anterior to the creation described in the beginning of Genesis.

For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife;
And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh.
What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
[9. Ὁ Θεὸςἄνθρωπος, God—man) Whatsoever God doeth and ordaineth, it is man’s part to regard as an established principle. It is an impiety to accept as authoritative what God rejects; or to approve of what God censures.—V. g.]

And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter.
[10. Πάλιν, again) The Saviour had given the reply which follows to the Pharisees, Matthew 19:9; but the disciples, by repeating the question, called forth a repetition of the same reply.—V. g.]

And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her.
Mark 10:11. Ἐπʼ αὐτὴν, against her).

And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery.
And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them: and his disciples rebuked those that brought them.
Mark 10:13. Ἅψηται, should touch) A modest request.

But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.
Mark 10:14. Ἠγανάκτησε, was much displeased) on account of the obstruction thrown in the way of His love by the disciples.—τοιούτων ἐστὶν, of such is) Of such as these, it is [to such belongs] the privilege to receive the kingdom of God, Mark 10:15.

Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.
Mark 10:15. Ὃς ἐὰν, whosoever) This He did to mark His disapproval of that very feeling, by which the disciples were moved to put away the infants from Him.—δέξηται, shall receive) for it is offered [to all].—ὡς παίδιον, as a little child) receives: for it receives the kingdom in very deed.

And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.
Mark 10:16. Καὶ, and) He did more than He was asked, Mark 10:13. [εὐλόγει αὐτὰ, He blessed them) By that very act conferring on them the blessings, which He afforded to adults by the mediation of the word.—V. g.]

And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?
Mark 10:17. Ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ, as He was going forth) from the house, Mark 10:10.—προσδραμὼν) The Vulg. has procurrens, as if it had the reading προδραμὼν.[11] This man was at all events impelled by a remarkable degree of earnestness. He seems to have been eagerly waiting for the Saviour’s coming. [Sadden impulses of this kind oftentimes by and by grow languid.—V. g.]—γονυπετήσας, falling at His knees) He must therefore have felt great ardour.—ποιήσω, shall I do) Those who are in spirit little children, receive not the kingdom of heaven by doing: Mark 10:15.

[11] So also a: ‘præcurrens’ in b: ‘adcurrit,’ d. A has ἰδού τις πλούσιος προσδραμὼν.—ED. and TRANSL.

And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God.
Mark 10:18. Εἶπεν, He said) The Lord replies, I. To the remarkable title which the young man had addressed to Him: II. To the question which he proposed.—τί Με λέγεις ἀγαθὸν; why callest thou Me good?) There were many things in Jesus, viewing Him merely externally, by reason of which the ignorant would not form the best opinion concerning Him: John 1:47; Matthew 11:6; Matthew 11:19; Isaiah 53:2, etc. Moreover also He did not rest on Himself, but ever referred Himself wholly to the Father. He acted the part of a traveller and a pilgrim in the world; and in that condition, in which the Psalms describe Him as wretched and needy, He was ever aiming towards the eternal good and the eternal joy, concerning which this youth was enquiring. Psalm 16:2; Psalm 16:5, etc.: My goodness [extendeth not to thee, Engl. V.] is not independent of thee. Comp. John 14:28; John 17:5; Hebrews 5:8-9; Hebrews 9:12. He did not “know Himself according to the flesh;” as Augustine preaches [distinctly states], l. i. de Doctr. Christ., c. 34. For good, ἀγαθὸς, properly applies to one blessed.[12] The young man was seeking with [by application to] Jesus happiness, in a too pure [unalloyed] sense. Jesus informs Him that ne will not find this with Him: Comp. Luke 9:57, etc. Nevertheless He does not say, I am not good; but, Why dost thou call Me good? Just as in Matthew 22:43, He does not deny, that He, the Son of David, is at one and the same time also the Lord of David. God is good: there is no goodness without Godhead. The young man perceived in Jesus the presence of goodness in some degree otherwise he would not have applied to Him: but he did not perceive it in its full extent; otherwise he would not have gone back from Him. Much less did he perceive [recognise] His Godhead. Wherefore Jesus does not accept from Him the title of goodness without the title of Godhead (Comp. the “Why call ye me, Lord, Lord,” Luke 6:46): and thereby vindicates the honour of the Father, with whom He is one. See John 5:19. At the same time [He darts causes to enter] a ray of His omniscience into the heart of this young man, and shows that the young man has not as yet the knowledge concerning Himself, Jesus Christ, worthy of so exalted a title, which otherwise is altogether appropriate to Him. Wherefore He does not say, There is none good save one, that is, My Father; but, There is none good save one, that is, God. Often our Lord proportioned [qualified] His words to the capacity of those who questioned Him, John 4:22. So a warlike commander, of noble birth, might answer to a person, who Knew not his noble birth, though knowing the fact of his a being commander, Why do you call me, a gracious lord? Jesus manifested His goodness to the disciples, Luke 10:23; Romans 14:16.

[12] Beatum, a term appropriate in the full sense only to God.—ED, and TRANSL.

Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.
Mark 10:19. Οἶδας, thou knowest) Why dost thou ask, What shall I do?—μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς, defraud not) by covetousness, Exodus 20:17.[13] The same verb occurs, 1 Corinthians 6:8 : see note.

[13] Otherwise this command would not differ from the previous, “Do not steal.”—ED. and TRANSL.

And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth.
Mark 10:20. Διδάσκαλε, Master) The young man now repeats the noun [title of address] without the epithet [good]. And yet Jesus loves him.

Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me.
Mark 10:21. Ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ ἠγάπησεν αὐτὸν, looking earnestly on him, loved him) He expressed love with the earnest look, and as it were smiling expression, of His eyes.—A ἕν διὰ δυοῖν, He lovingly beheld,[14] in order that He might thereby give him a token of His love for the time to come, if he would follow Jesus: and that He might counteract his ‘sadness.’ The antithetic word is στυγνάσας, with saddened look [countenance], Mark 10:22. It is for this reason mention is made in Christ’s life of tears, rather than of laughter, because He had come to bear our sins. Yet benignity and joy sometimes shone forth from His countenance, as was the case in this passage, with the view of alluring the youth, who now was standing on the threshold of following Christ. Comp. Mark 10:16; Luke 10:20-24; Luke 12:32. A similar use of this verb occurs in Psalm 78:36, ἠγάπησαν αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ στόματι ἀυτῶν and 2 Chronicles 18:2, ἨΓΆΠΑ ΑὐΤῸΝ ΤΟῦ ΣΥΝΑΝΑΒῆΝΑΙ: so also the use of the verb ἘΛΕΕῖΝ (ΟὛς ΔῈ ἘΛΕᾶΤΕ [ἘΛΕΕῖΤΕ] ἘΝ ΦΌΒῼ), Judges 1:22.—ἛΝ, one thing) In antithesis to ταῦτα πάντα, all these, Mark 10:20. [The faithful Master wished to render the business (his obtaining eternal life) more easy and delightful to the man.—V. g.] This one thing is a heart freed from the [idolatry of] creatures: the selling of his goods was intended to be the proof of his freedom. Generally speaking, to men, severally and individually, there is wanting some one thing, this or that; and by the want of that one thing they are kept back from Christ.—σταυρὸν, cross) Viz. that of poverty, etc. So the words, with persecutions, Mark 10:30, express the same sentiment.

[14] Comp. with these remarks what D. Ernesti has written against Gerh. de Haas, in der Theol Bibl., T. I., p. 130, etc.—E. B.

And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions.
[22. ‘O δὲ, but he) How quickly do men refuse the happiest of all conditions!—V. g.]

And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
Mark 10:23. Περιβλεψάμενος, having looked round about) We have often the look [countenance] of Christ described, corresponding as it did to His inward feeling, and adapted to the inward feelings of His hearers: Comp. Mark 5:21; Mark 5:27.—πῶς, how) The proposition stated is, A rich man is with difficulty saved: the subject of the proposition is limited in Mark 10:24 [They that trust in riches being substituted for, they that have riches]: the predicate is enlarged [amplified: Mark 10:25 being the amplification of the simple predicate, enter into the kingdom of God]. They [the subject and predicate of the proposition, A rich man is with difficulty saved] differ in the abstract; they for the most part agree in the concrete.[15]—οἱ τὰ χρήματα ἔχοντες, they that have riches) The few have most of the wealth of the world.

[15] As a matter of fact, and not reasoning a priori, rich men are with difficulty saved.—ED. and TRANSL.

And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!
Mark 10:24. Τέκνα, Children) This term of address shows, that Jesus speaks with pity, but at the same time with truth: and that He freely declares the fact to His disciples.—τοὺς πεποιθότος, those that trust) puffed up thereby, so as not to obey the word of God: ch. Mark 4:19; Psalm 62:10; 1 Timothy 6:17. [The number of those who hare riches is not much greater than that of those who trust in them.—V. g.]

It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?
Mark 10:26. Καὶ, and [i.e. “who then?”]) This particle here expresses astonishment.

[26. Ἀφήσει, neither will forgive) And so will also refuse to give ear to.—V. g.]

And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.
Mark 10:27. Πάντα, all things) Psalm 62:12. Comp. in that passage and here the preceding context.

Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee.
Mark 10:28. Ἤρξατο, began) as having been led to entertain hope from the words of the Saviour.

And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's,
Mark 10:29. Ἢ ἀδελφοὺς, or brethren) The goods which are left (for Christ’s sake) are enumerated disjunctively [“house or brethren or sisters,” etc.]: the goods, which are granted in reward, are enumerated copulatively [“houses and brethren and sisters,” etc., Mark 10:30]: See following verse. Observe the rich plentifulness of the reward, illustrating the goodness of the Lord.—ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ, for My sake) whilst I am in the world.—ἕνεκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, for the sake of the Gospel) In order that he may preach My name after My ascension. For the sake of the world, many leave many things.[16]

[16] How much more ought they for Christ’s sake!—ED. and TRANSL.

But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life.
Mark 10:30. Ἐὰν μὴ) but he shall [quin]—και πατέρας καὶ μητέρας, both fathers and mothers) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.[17] Each one has by nature but one father and one mother [favouring the Sing, reading of Lachm.]: but by means of [having regard to] benefits received, he is blessed with many, who follows Christ:[18] Comp. Romans 16:13. There is not added, wives;[19] for that would sound somewhat inconsistent with propriety.—τέκνα, children) 1 Corinthians 4:14-17.—μετὰ διωγμῶν, with persecutions) This is added lest the disciples should look for [expect] external prosperity. Persecutions shall not he wanting: but these not only shall not prove prejudicial, but shall even be advantageous towards his receiving an hundred-fold, preventing him in the interim from being unduly elated by that ‘hundredfold.’—αἰῶνι, in the world) not καιρῷ, in this time.—τῷ ἐρχομένῳ, coming) Already that world is in the act of coming.

[17] Tischend. reads only καὶ μητέρας with B and Vulg. Lachm. also omits πατέρας, but reads καὶ μητέρα with ACD ab. Only more modern uncial MSS., as X. etc., have καὶ πατέρα, and some καὶ πατέρας.—ED. and TRANSL.

[18] This favours the plur. reading of Tisch.—ED. and TRANSL.

[19] γυναῖκας. Two later MSS. add καὶ γυναῖκα.—ED. and TRANSL.

But many that are first shall be last; and the last first.
Mark 10:31. Ἔσονται πρῶτοι, first shall be) First (πρῶτοι), is the subject; see Matthew 19:30, note.

And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him,
Mark 10:32. Ἐθαμβοῦντο, they were amazed [fear-struck]) They knew not themselves the reason why. Often something, which does not fall under the vision [the ken] of the mind or of the eye, affects another sense; Daniel 10:7. They were fear-struck [shuddered with amazement] on account of Jesus, who went before: they were afraid, on account of their own selves, who were following Him. By this shuddering amazement and fear, they were divested of their opinion and hope of earthly things, if not completely, as, for instance, in the case of James and John [Mark 10:35, etc.], yet in part.—ἤρξατο, He began) Already He had begun before, ch. Mark 8:31; but now He began to speak more fully and at large. And this even as yet was but the beginning.

Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles:
And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.
And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire.
Mark 10:35. Προσπορεύονται) go together to Him.—θέλομεν, ποιήσῃς, we would that thou shouldst do) So in the following ver., What would ye that I should do?ποιήσῃς· ποιῆσαι· δός, that thou shouldst do; that I should do? Grant) They use art in their request; for petitions are often more readily asked and obtained, which consist in doing, than those which consist in granting or giving.

And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you?
They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory.
But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?
Mark 10:38. Τὸ ποτήριοντὸ βάπτισμα, the cup—the baptism) To drink this cup was difficult (as often death itself is taken in the act of drinking). Baptism also, among the Jews, was a thing to be shuddered at, inasmuch as the whole body was dipped in a stream, however cold. Accordingly, by both words the passion of Christ is denoted: by the cup, His inward passion; the cup is therefore placed first: by the baptism, chiefly His external passion, He was distended inwardly with His passion [referring to the cup; He was filled with the cup of anguish]: He was covered over [as a person baptized is with water] with His passion. Moreover, both are appropriately employed; for they who take the sacraments, are partakers of the baptism and the cup of Christ; 1 Corinthians 12:13 : and the baptism of Christ and our baptism, as also the Holy Supper, have a close connection with Christ’s passion and death, and with ours also.—πίεσθεβαπτισθήσεσθε, ye shall drink—ye shall be baptized) James, when slain with the sword, drank the cup [Acts 12:2]; afterwards John was baptized in boiling oil, as Ecclesiastical History represents. Boiling oil is in consonance with the term, baptism. Our Lord Himself, in Gethsemane, also calls His suffering of death a cup. It is in consonance with this, that the cup is placed before the baptism.[20]

[20] Just as Jesus’ and James’ cup of suffering was before John’s baptism in sufferings.—ED. and TRANSL.

And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized:
But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.
And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John.
[41. Οἱ δέκα, the ten) When one of two persons seeks some special privilege, the other takes it ill, who would have been contented of himself.—V. g.]

But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.
Mark 10:42. Δοκοῦντες) they who think [which are accounted, Engl. Vers.] that they rule. A Metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent; that is, they who strenuously exercise rule. [Worldly princes have but little greatness in the eyes of the Divine Majesty.—V. g.]

But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:
And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all.
Mark 10:44. Πάντων, of all) Mark 10:43, of you [your]. Thus there is an Epitasis in this verse.[21]

[21] i.e., An emphatic augmentation of force added to a previous enunciation: as πάντων is here, when compared with the previous ὑμῶν. See Append.—ED. and TRANSL.

For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
[45. Διακονῆσαι, in order to minister) Who is there, whom the Saviour’s incomparable example ought not to put to the blush, and sweetly gain over to Him?—V. g.]

And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging.
Mark 10:46. Βαρτίμαιος, Bartimœus) A proparoxyton [accented on the antepenult] as the simple name Τίμαιος. Timæus seems to have been a man at that time known at Jericho; and Bartimœus seems to have been made a beggar only by reason of his blindness [and not previously].—ὁ τυφλὸς, blind) This epithet had become an equivalent to a surname. Bartimæus was very well known in the time of the apostles. [As to the other blind man associated with him, see the note Matthew 20:30.]—ὁδὸν, the way) On the highway to Jerusalem there was the greater opportunity of begging.

And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me.
Mark 10:47. Ὁ Υἱὸς Δαυὶδ, Ἰησοῦ, Thou Son of David, Jesus) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.[22] It was a great instance of faith that the blind man calls Him Son of David, whereas the people announced Jesus to him as Jesus of Nazareth.—[ἘΛΈΗΣΌΝ ΜΕ, have mercy on me) This is the very marrow of all real prayers.—V. g.]

[22] Lachm. reads Υἱὲ with BCLΔ. Tisch. ὁ Υἱὸς with AD, Orig. 3,734 (except that the two last authorities omit ). L and Orig. omit Ἰησοῦ.—ED. and TRANSL.

And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me.
And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee.
Mark 10:49. Θάρσει, Be of good comfort) in mind.—ἔγειραι, rise) with the body. An elegant asyndeton [omission of the copula]. They had no doubt but that He was both willing and able to help.

And he, casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus.
Mark 10:50. Ἀποβαλὼν, casting away) through eagerness and joy·

And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.
And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
Mark 10:52. Ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, in the way) towards Jerusalem.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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