Ezekiel 31:12
New International Version
and the most ruthless of foreign nations cut it down and left it. Its boughs fell on the mountains and in all the valleys; its branches lay broken in all the ravines of the land. All the nations of the earth came out from under its shade and left it.

New Living Translation
A foreign army—the terror of the nations—has cut it down and left it fallen on the ground. Its branches are scattered across the mountains and valleys and ravines of the land. All those who lived in its shadow have gone away and left it lying there.

English Standard Version
Foreigners, the most ruthless of nations, have cut it down and left it. On the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its boughs have been broken in all the ravines of the land, and all the peoples of the earth have gone away from its shadow and left it.

Berean Study Bible
Foreigners, the most ruthless of the nations, cut it down and left it. Its branches have fallen on the mountains and in every valley; its boughs lay broken in all the earth’s ravines. And all the peoples of the earth left its shade and abandoned it.

King James Bible
And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

New King James Version
And aliens, the most terrible of the nations, have cut it down and left it; its branches have fallen on the mountains and in all the valleys; its boughs lie broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the peoples of the earth have gone from under its shadow and left it.

New American Standard Bible
Foreign tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its branches have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have gone down from its shade and left it.

NASB 1995
“Alien tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen and its boughs have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have gone down from its shade and left it.

NASB 1977
“And alien tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its boughs have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have gone down from its shade and left it.

Amplified Bible
Alien tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; its foliage has fallen on the mountains and in all the valleys and its branches have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the nations of the earth have come from under its shade and have left it.

Christian Standard Bible
Foreigners, ruthless men from the nations, cut it down and left it lying. Its limbs fell on the mountains and in every valley; its boughs lay broken in all the earth’s ravines. All the peoples of the earth left its shade and abandoned it.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Foreigners, ruthless men from the nations, cut it down and left it lying. Its limbs fell on the mountains and in every valley; its boughs lay broken in all the earth’s ravines. All the peoples of the earth left its shade and abandoned it.

American Standard Version
And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And strong foreigners of the Gentiles shall destroy him and shall cast him on the mountains, and in all the valleys its branches shall fall, and its branches shall be broken in all the valleys of the Earth, and all the nations of the Earth shall go down from its shadow, and they shall leave it

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And ravaging strangers from the nations have destroyed him, and have cast him down upon the mountains: his branches fell in all the valleys, and his boughs were broken in every field of the land; and all the people of the nations are gone down from their shelter, and have laid him low.

Contemporary English Version
Cruel foreigners will chop it down and leave it wherever it falls. Branches and broken limbs will be scattered over the mountains and in the valleys. The people living in the shade of those branches will go somewhere else.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And strangers, and the most cruel of the nations shall cut him down, and cast him away upon the mountains, and his boughs shall fall in every valley, and his branches shall be broken on every rock of the country: and all the people of the earth shall depart from his shadow, and leave him.

English Revised Version
And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

Good News Translation
Ruthless foreigners will cut it down and leave it. Its branches and broken limbs will fall on every mountain and valley in the country. All the nations that have been living in its shade will go away.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Foreigners from the most ruthless nation cut it down and threw it away. Its branches fell on the mountains and in every valley. Its broken branches fell in every ravine in the land. All the nations in the world came out from under its shade and left.

International Standard Version
Foreign dictators have trimmed it down to size and abandoned it. Its branches have fallen off on mountains and in all the valleys. Its boughs have broken off in all the ravines of the land. All the nations of the earth have moved out of its shade and abandoned it.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And strangers, the terrible of the nations, do cut him off, and cast him down; upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs lie broken in all the channels of the land; and all the peoples of the earth do go down from his shadow, and do leave him.

Literal Standard Version
And strangers cut him off, The terrible of nations, and they leave him, His thin shoots have fallen on the mountains and in all valleys, And his boughs are broken at all streams of the land, And all peoples of the land go down from his shade, and they leave him.

NET Bible
Foreigners from the most terrifying nations have cut it down and left it to lie there on the mountains. In all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its boughs lie broken in the ravines of the land. All the peoples of the land have departed from its shade and left it.

New Heart English Bible
Strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: on the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

World English Bible
Strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: on the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

Young's Literal Translation
And cut him off do strangers, The terrible of nations, and they leave him, On the mountains and in all valleys have his thin shoots fallen, And broken are his boughs at all streams of the land, And go down from his shade do all peoples of the land, and they leave him.

Additional Translations ...
Context
Egypt will Fall Like Assyria
11I delivered it into the hand of the ruler of the nations, for him to deal with it according to its wickedness. I have banished it. 12Foreigners, the most ruthless of the nations, cut it down and left it. Its branches have fallen on the mountains and in every valley; its boughs lay broken in all the earth’s ravines. And all the peoples of the earth left its shade and abandoned it. 13All the birds of the air nested on its fallen trunk, and all the beasts of the field lived among its boughs.…

Cross References
Ezekiel 7:21
And I will hand these things over as plunder to foreigners and loot to the wicked of the earth, who will defile them.

Ezekiel 28:7
behold, I will bring foreigners against you, the most ruthless of nations. They will draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom and will defile your splendor.

Ezekiel 30:11
He and his people with him, the most ruthless of the nations, will be brought in to destroy the land. They will draw their swords against Egypt and fill the land with the slain.

Ezekiel 30:12
I will make the streams dry up and sell the land to the wicked. By the hands of foreigners I will bring desolation upon the land and everything in it. I, the LORD, have spoken.

Ezekiel 31:17
They too descended with it to Sheol, to those slain by the sword. As its allies they had lived in its shade among the nations.

Ezekiel 32:5
I will put your flesh on the mountains and fill the valleys with your remains.

Ezekiel 32:12
I will make your hordes fall by the swords of the mighty, the most ruthless of all nations. They will ravage the pride of Egypt and all her multitudes will be destroyed.


Treasury of Scripture

And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: on the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

strangers

Ezekiel 28:7
Behold, therefore I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations: and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy brightness.

Ezekiel 30:11
He and his people with him, the terrible of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the land: and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with the slain.

Habakkuk 1:6,11
For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the breadth of the land, to possess the dwellingplaces that are not theirs…

upon

Ezekiel 32:4,5
Then will I leave thee upon the land, I will cast thee forth upon the open field, and will cause all the fowls of the heaven to remain upon thee, and I will fill the beasts of the whole earth with thee…

Ezekiel 35:5,8
Because thou hast had a perpetual hatred, and hast shed the blood of the children of Israel by the force of the sword in the time of their calamity, in the time that their iniquity had an end: …

Ezekiel 39:4
Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, and the people that is with thee: I will give thee unto the ravenous birds of every sort, and to the beasts of the field to be devoured.

gone

Daniel 4:12-14
The leaves thereof were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under it, and the fowls of the heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was fed of it…

Nahum 3:17,18
Thy crowned are as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, but when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they are

Revelation 17:16
And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.









(12) Gone down.--Because the cedar is represented as growing upon the height of Lebanon. Yet "the people of the earth" is literal.

Verse 12. - Strangers, the terrible of the nations. We note the recurrence of the phrase of Ezekiel 30:11, as pointing, here as there, to the Chaldean invaders. The branches of the tree were broken, the people of the earth no longer dwelt under its shadow (Daniel 4:11).

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
Foreigners,
זָרִ֛ים (zā·rîm)
Adjective - masculine plural
Strong's 2114: To turn aside, to be a, foreigner, strange, profane, to commit adultery

the most ruthless
עָרִיצֵ֥י (‘ā·rî·ṣê)
Adjective - masculine plural construct
Strong's 6184: Awe-inspiring, terror-striking

of the nations,
גוֹיִ֖ם (ḡō·w·yim)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 1471: A foreign nation, a Gentile, a troop of animals, a flight of locusts

cut it down
וַיִּכְרְתֻ֧הוּ (way·yiḵ·rə·ṯu·hū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural | third person masculine singular
Strong's 3772: To cut, to destroy, consume, to covenant

and left it.
וַֽיִּטְּשֻׁ֑הוּ (way·yiṭ·ṭə·šu·hū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural | third person masculine singular
Strong's 5203: To pound, smite, to disperse, to thrust off, down, out, upon

Its branches
דָלִיּוֹתָ֗יו (ḏā·lî·yō·w·ṯāw)
Noun - feminine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 1808: Something dangling, a bough

have fallen
נָפְל֣וּ (nā·p̄ə·lū)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person common plural
Strong's 5307: To fall, lie

on
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's 413: Near, with, among, to

the mountains
הֶ֠הָרִים (he·hā·rîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 2022: Mountain, hill, hill country

and in every
וּבְכָל־ (ū·ḇə·ḵāl)
Conjunctive waw, Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

valley;
גֵּ֨אָי֜וֹת (gê·’ā·yō·wṯ)
Noun - common plural
Strong's 1516: A valley

its boughs
פֹֽארֹתָיו֙ (p̄ō·rō·ṯāw)
Noun - feminine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 6288: Ornamentation, foliage, as bright green

lay broken
וַתִּשָּׁבַ֤רְנָה (wat·tiš·šā·ḇar·nāh)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Nifal - Consecutive imperfect - third person feminine plural
Strong's 7665: To break, break in pieces

in all
בְּכֹל֙ (bə·ḵōl)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the earth’s
הָאָ֔רֶץ (hā·’ā·reṣ)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's 776: Earth, land

ravines.
אֲפִיקֵ֣י (’ă·p̄î·qê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's 650: Containing, a tube, a bed, valley of a, stream, a strong thing, a hero

And all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the peoples
עַמֵּ֥י (‘am·mê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's 5971: A people, a tribe, troops, attendants, a flock

of the earth
הָאָ֖רֶץ (hā·’ā·reṣ)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's 776: Earth, land

left
וַיֵּרְד֧וּ (way·yê·rə·ḏū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's 3381: To come or go down, descend

its shade
מִצִּלּ֛וֹ (miṣ·ṣil·lōw)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 6738: A shadow

and abandoned it.
וַֽיִּטְּשֻֽׁהוּ׃ (way·yiṭ·ṭə·šu·hū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural | third person masculine singular
Strong's 5203: To pound, smite, to disperse, to thrust off, down, out, upon


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