Luke 1
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,
Luke 1:1. Ἐπειδήπερ, Forasmuch as) A brief dedication applying to both the works of Luke:[1] it may be also termed the Preface or Introduction, and from it there shine forth pre-eminently gravity, simplicity, and candour.—πολλοὶ ἐπεχείρησαν many have taken in hand) Luke does not hereby denote Matthew and John, who had been among the very eye-witnesses of the facts and ministers of the word; not to say that Luke both wrote before John, and does not seem to have seen the Gospel of Matthew. There remains the one evangelist Mark alone; but Luke speaks of many, and employs the word ἐπεχείρησαν, have taken in hand, in a middle sense [i.e. neither expressing disparagement nor praise]; and consonant with this is the particle καθὼς, even as, which implies a consonance with the relation [report] of the eye-witnesses and ministers either sought after or attained by the writers alluded to: also the expression κἀμοὶ, to me also, agrees with the same view; for by it Luke does not so much oppose himself to those many writers, but rather adds himself to their number, as one of the same class, in such a manner, however, as that he may contribute somewhat even still to the ἀσφάλεια and firm assurance of Theophilus. He therefore intimates, if only he has had reference [not merely to others, but] also to Mark [which indeed, if you compare together the forms of expression and the order of narratives in each, is not very unlikely.—Harm., p. 36], that several particulars, not mentioned in Mark, are read to his hand for recording; but that the other writers, as, for instance, he who wrote the Gospel according to the Egyptians, are less calculated to serve towards producing ἀσφάλεια and firm assurance.—ἀνατάξασθαι, to set forth in order) in writing or instructive [catechetico, referring to κατηχήθης, Luke 1:4] words. Hesychius says, ἀνατάξασθαι, εὐτρεπίσασθαι.—τῶν πεπληροφορημένων) πληροφορία, when it is attributed to a man, denotes the fulness of knowledge in the understanding, or of eager desire in the will: 2 Timothy 4:17; Hebrews 6:11, note. Such vigour characterized τὰ πράγματα, the Christian facts, which Luke describes in both his works, whilst they were occurring [were being accomplished]: and these alone had this characteristic; for which reason this periphrasis whereby he designates the same facts is quite sufficient. It was in the sight of the world that the Gospel facts occurred: Acts 26:26.—ἐν ἡμῖν, among us) in the Church, but especially among the teachers, and these veterans.

[1] The names Lucius and Lucas are the same; except that the former, being a diminutive of the latter, has somewhat of a more familiar sound. Mention is made as early as in Acts 13:1 of a Lucius of Cyrene among the prophets and teachers of the Church, which at that time flourished at Antioch; and therefore it must have been but a short time after the death which befel Herod (ch. Luke 12:23), A. Dion. Era, 44. It is owing to this, I am inclined to think, that Eusebius and others have considered Antioch as the native place of Luke. Furthermore, Paul makes mention of a certain Lucius among his ‘kinsmen,’ Romans 16:21, and calls Luke [Lucas] his fellow-workman and the beloved Physician, Philemon 1:24; Colossians 4:14. Now, whether he be only Luke [Lucas], or also Lucius, he is the very person who wrote the Acts of the Apostles, having accompanied Paul himself from the Troad, first to Philippi (Acts 16:10), next from Philippi to Troas, nay, even as far as to Rome (ch Acts 20:6, Acts 28:16; 2 Timothy 4:11): and it is owing to this that he most frequently uses the first person plural in his narrative. Moreover the lively [vigorous] style of Luke, which is particularly appropriate to the very joyful subject of the Acts, comprising, as they do, in their history the completion [carrying into effect] of the New Testament, seems to have derived some of its characteristics from the association of many years, which Luke maintained [enjoyed] with Paul.—Harm., pp. 35, 36. Lucas seems to me to be the contraction of Lucanus, as Silas from Silvanus, and to be altogether a distinct name from Lucius.—ED. and TRANSL.

Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word;
Luke 1:2. Παρέδοσαυ ἡυῖν, they have delivered to us) to me, and to the other companions of the apostles.—ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς, from the beginning) It was not from Paul alone, who was converted after the beginning, that Luke received his information.—αὐτόπται καὶ ὑπηρέται) They themselves saw [αὐτὸς ὄπτεσθαι being the components of αὐτόπτης], and, what is more, ministered. So also Paul was a minister and witness: Acts 26:16; so also the mother of our Lord herself, Mary: Acts 1:14. There were many such witnesses, advanced in years, and so of the highest authority [for instance, the twelve apostles, the seventy disciples, Mary Magdalene, and several more.—V. g.]: 1 Corinthians 15:6; Romans 16:7. It was such as these themselves, and the companions of such, who wrote the books of the New Testament. No room was left for doubting.—τοῦ λόγου, of the word) Acts 10:36. This one ‘word’ embraces many ‘words,’ Luke 1:4 [ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων: subjects of instruction].

It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,
Luke 1:3. Ἔδοξε κἀμοὶ, it seemed good to me also) A holy inclination, worthy of an evangelical man.—παρηκολουθηκότι, having traced up [followed up: Engl. Vers. having had perfect understanding]) A choice and happy word: it is said of him who has been all but present himself at all the events, and who has learned them from those who were actually present; for instance, Paul uses it of Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:10 [παρηκολούθηκάς μου διδασκαλίᾳ, thou hast fully known my doctrine], as being one whom Paul brought about with him presently after the persecutions, which he endured at Antioch, etc. The antithetic term is ἀπολέλειμμαι, the thing has escaped me, I do not comprehend it. Thus the cause is implied, why Luke regarded it as a fixed thing that he both could and ought to write. He is the person who in Acts 13:1, or at least in Acts 16:10, was already discharging an evangelical function.—ἄνωθεν, from above [tracing upwards]) i.e. “from the beginning,” Luke 1:2; Luke 1:5. [He intimates by this term, that he meant to supply those particulars which Mark has omitted.—Harm., p. 37.] Scripture hands down to us the first commencements [origines] of things, even those of the Gospel and of the Church.—πᾶσιν) τοῖς πράγμασιν. All these matters had been followed up by Luke accurately [ἀκριβῶς].—καθεξῆς, deinceps, successively, subsequently; [in order]) ἐξῆς, afterwards; καθεξῆς, successively (‘deinceps’), subsequently. As Luke had followed up [ascertained] all things, it was the next thing [καθεξῆς] to follow, that he should describe them. And indeed this Preface savours of fresh [recent] joy, such as would be felt at the coming to the knowledge of [joyful] facts. Moreover he describes in order (for καθεξῆς has this force also), first, the Acts of Christ, His Conception, Nativity, boyhood, Baptism, gracious deeds done by Him, preaching, Passion, Resurrection, Ascension: then next the Acts of the apostles. Yet this very fact [viz. his narrating these events in order] does not prevent his at times joining together some events which were separated from one another in point of their respective times: ch. Luke 1:80, Luke 3:20, etc.—κράτιστε Θεόφιλε, most excellent Theophilus) This Theophilus belonged to Alexandria, as the ancients testify (see Ord. Temp., p. 225), Ed. ii., p. 196, and Harm. Ev. Ed. ii., p. 80; and that was a city in which especially flourished κατήχησις, Luke 1:4. He was a most noble man, as the title given him by Luke shows: comp. Acts 28:26; Acts 24:3; Acts 26:25. The same title is not given to the same Theophilus in Acts 1:1, either because he was then in private life, or because his excellence and Luke’s intimacy with him had increased. Moreover this title of respect serves as an argument, that the Gospel history is a true one, and allowed itself from the very beginning to be offered for acceptance to the most distinguished personages. The holy examples of illustrious men, described in these books, were calculated to stimulate Theophilus to imitate them.

That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.
Luke 1:4. Ἵνα, that) Expressing the scope of the whole work, [which in John is stated at the close of his Gospel, ch. Luke 21:24.—Harm., p. 34.]—ἐπιγνῷς, thou mightest clearly perceive) The compound verb is emphatic.[2]—κατηχήθης, thou hast been instructed) by the mouth of others. This κατήχησις[3] also comprises sacred history. Luke hereby claims to himself greater authority than that of those from whom Theophilus had previously received instruction.—[τὴν ἀσφάλειαν, the certainty) This unerring certainty has place, where nothing of a spurious character is added, nothing that is necessary is omitted (left to be wished for, desideratur), and all the particulars are attested and proved by adequate documents and proofs.—V. g.]

[2] The ἐπὶ augments the force of the simple verb. Wahl explains it, plane et accuratè cognoscere.—ED. and TRANSL.

[3] Whence Engl. word, catechism, catechetical.—ED. and TRANSL.

There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.
Luke 1:5. Ἐγένετο, there was) Following close upon the Preface itself, Luke exhibits the History of Jesus Christ from His entrance into the world, up to the time of His ascension into heaven. In this History we may note—  

I.  THE BEGINNING: wherein we have

1.  The conception of John, Luke 1:5-252.  The conception of Jesus Himself, Luke 1:26-563.  The nativity and circumcision of John: the hymn of Zacharias: the youth of John, Luke 1:57-804.  Jesus Christ’s (a) Nativity, Luke 2:1-20  (b) Circumcision and name given, Luke 2:21  (c) Presentation to the Lord in the temple, Luke 2:22-38  (d) His own country and growth, Luke 2:39-40  II.  THE MIDDLE: when He was twelve years of age, and subsequently, Luke 2:41-52  III.  HIS COURSE [MINISTRY] itself.

1.  The entrance on it: wherein is described the Baptist; His baptism, His temptation, Luke 3:1-2; Luke 3:21-22; Luke 4:1-132.  The acceptable year in Galilee,

A.  Set forth before His hearers at Nazareth, Luke 4:14-30B.  Made good in actual performance:

α.  At Capernaum, and in that region. Here are to be noted—

1.  His acts not censured by his adversaries; whereby Jesus

1.  Powerfully teaches, Luke 4:31-322.  Delivers one demoniacally possessed, Luke 4:33-373.  Cures the mother-in-law of Peter, and many sick persons, Luke 4:38-414.  Teaches everywhere, Luke 4:42-445.  Calls Peter, and also James and John, Luke 5:1-116.  Cleanses the leper, Luke 5:12-162.  His acts censured by His adversaries, and that with gradually increasing severity.

To this class belong—

1.  The man with palsy, Luke 5:17-262.  The call of Levi, and the eating with publicans and sinners, Luke 5:27-323.  The question as to fasting answered, Luke 5:33-394.  The plucking of the ears of corn,   Luke 6:1-55.  The withered hand restored, and the plotting against Jesus, Luke 6:6-113.  His acts, of which the issue [result] was different in the case of the different persons with whom He had to do:

1.  In the case of His chosen apostles, Luke 6:12-162.  In the case of His other hearers, Luke 6:17-18; Luke 6:20-493.  In the case of the centurion, Luke 7:1-104.  In the case of the disciples of John, in connection with whom we have—

a.  The occasion of the raising of the young man at Nain, Luke 7:11-18b.  The embassy from John, Luke 7:18-23c.  The reproof,  Luke 7:24-355.  In the case of Simon the Pharisee, and the sinner, the woman who showed Him much love, Luke 7:36-506.  In the case of His own immediate attendants, Luke 8:1-37.  In the case of the people, Luke 8:4-188.  In the case of His mother and brethren, Luke 8:19-21β.  On the sea, Luke 8:22-26And beyond the sea, Luke 8:27-39γ.  On this side of the sea, again:

1.  Jairus, and the woman with the issue of blood, Luke 8:40-562.  The apostles sent forth, Luke 9:1-63.  The doubts of Herod, Luke 9:7-94.  The report of the apostles, Luke 9:105.  The eagerness of the people: the kindness of the Lord: the five thousand fed, Luke 9:11-173.  The preparation for His passion, etc.

A.  The recapitulation of His doctrine concerning the person of Jesus Christ. Silence enjoined; His passion foretold; following Him enjoined, Luke 9:18-19; Luke 9:21-27B.  His transfiguration on the mountain; the lunatic healed; His passion again foretold; humility and moderation commanded, Luke 9:28-29; Luke 9:37-38; Luke 9:43-44; Luke 9:46-47; Luke 9:49-50C.  His great journey to Jerusalem when about to suffer. Herein we may fix eighteen intervals [incidents marking divisions]:

  I.  THE SAMARITANS, unwilling to receive Him, yet tolerated, Luke 9:51-57  II.  On the way: unsuitable followers repulsed: suitable ones constrained, Luke 9:57-62  III.  AFTERWARDS, seventy messengers sent before Him: and received back with joy Luke 10:1-24AND a lawyer taught love to his neighbour by the example of the Samaritan, Luke 10:25-37  IV.  In a certain village, Mary preferred to Martha, Luke 10:38-42  V.  In a certain place, the disciples are taught to pray, Luke 11:1-13In a certain place, the demon is cast out: this act is defended, Luke 11:14-26In a certain place, the exclamation of the woman of the company is corrected, Luke 11:27-28In a certain place, the people who were eagerly desirous of a sign, are reproved, Luke 11:29-36  VI.  In a certain house, the Pharisees and Scribes are refuted, Luke 11:37-38; Luke 11:45-54  VII.  A discourse is addressed to the disciples, Luke 12:1-12A discourse is addressed to one interrupting Him with a request, Luke 12:13-21A discourse is addressed to the disciples, Luke 12:22-40A discourse is addressed to Peter, Luke 12:41-53A discourse is addressed to the people, Luke 12:54-59  VIII.  The need of repentance is shown, Luke 13:1-9  In the synagogue the woman is healed on the Sabbath, the kingdom of God thus increasing as the mustard-seed, Luke 13:10-21  IX.  On the journey, He declares the fewness of those about to be saved, Luke 13:22-30  X.  On that day Herod is called a fox; Jerusalem is reproved, Luke 13:31-35  XI.  In the house of the Pharisee, a man with a dropsy is healed on the Sabbath, Luke 14:1-6Humility is taught, Luke 14:7-11True hospitality, Luke 14:12-14The principle [ratio] of the great feast, Luke 14:15-24Self-denial required, Luke 14:25-35  XII.  Joy over repenting sinners is defended, Luke 15:1-2; Luke 15:11-12Their duty as stewards is enjoined on the disciples,  Luke 16:1-13And the avarice and derision of the Pharisees are refuted, Luke 16:14-31They are cautioned against ‘Offences,’ Luke 17:1-4The faith of the apostles is increased, Luke 17:5-10  XIII.  On the borders of Samaria and Galilee, He cures ten lepers, Luke 17:11-19  XIV.  He answers the question as to the time of the coming of the kingdom of God, Luke 17:20-37He recommends continual and humble prayer, Luke 18:1-2; Luke 18:9-14  XV.  He blesses little children, Luke 18:15-17He answers the rich ruler, Luke 18:18-27And Peter, Luke 18:28-30  XVI.  He foretells the Passion a third time,   Luke 18:31-34  XVII.  Nigh Jericho, a blind man given sight, Luke 18:35-43  XVIII.  In Jericho, salvation is conferred on Zaccheus, Luke 19:1-10An answer is given as to the sudden appearance of the kingdom of God, Luke 18:11-284.  His acts at Jerusalem.

A.  The first days of the great week.

1.  His royal entry into Jerusalem, Luke 19:29-442.  In the temple,

α.  The abuse of it corrected and chastised, Luke 19:45-46β.  Its right use restored,  Luke 19:47-48And vindicated, Luke 20:1-83.  Discourses in the temple:

α.  The parable concerning the husbandmen, Luke 20:9-19β.  The answer concerning the tribute-money, Luke 20:20-26And concerning the resurrection, Luke 20:27-40γ.  The question concerning David’s Lord, Luke 20:41-44δ.  The disciples warned of the Scribes, Luke 20:45-47ε.  The widow’s offering praised, Luke 21:1-44.  The end foretold, of the temple, of the city, of the universe, Luke 21:5-6; Luke 21:8-9; Luke 21:25-26; Luke 21:28-295.  The covenant of His adversaries and the traitor, Luke 22:1-6B.  Thursday.

a.  The preparations for the Passover made by Peter and John, Luke 22:7-13b.  The Supper, and words spoken at it, Luke 22:14-23c.  Who is the greatest? Luke 22:24-30Peter and the rest of the disciples are admonished, Luke 22:31-32; Luke 22:35-38d.  On the Mount of Olives:

1.  Jesus prays to the Father, is strengthened by an angel, and rouses His disciples Luke 22:39-462.  Is betrayed: is unseasonably defended [by Peter’s sword] against His assailants. Bears Himself holily,  Luke 22:47-53e.  Being seized, He is led into the high priest’s house, Luke 22:54Peter denies Him and weeps, Luke 22:55-62The Lord is mocked, Luke 22:63-65C.  Friday.

α.  His Passion and Death. His acts,

1.  In the Council, etc., Luke 22:66-712.  In the Governor’s hall, Luke 23:1-53.  Before Herod,   Luke 23:6-124.  Again in the Governor’s hall, Luke 23:13-14; Luke 23:17-255.  On the way to the cross, Luke 23:26-326.  At Golgotha; where we have the description of—

a.  The cross itself; and Jesus’ prayer for their forgiveness, Luke 23:33-34b.  The parting of His garments, Luke 23:34-35c.  The taunts uttered against Him, and among these the inscription on the Cross Luke 23:35-39d.  One of the robbers, however, converted, Luke 23:40-43e.  The miraculous portents, and the death of Jesus, Luke 23:44-46f.  The spectators, Luke 23:47-49β.  His burial, Luke 23:50-53D.  The preparation and the Sabbath, Luke 23:54-56E.  The Insurrection: it becomes known—

a.  To the women, Luke 24:1-12b.  To two going into the country, and to Simon, Luke 24:13-35c.  To the rest also, Luke 24:36-37; Luke 24:44-45F.  The instruction of the apostles; the Ascension of our Lord; the joyous alacrity of the apostles, Luke 24:46-53Ἡρώδου, of Herod) All the particulars are set down clearly: the names, the times, and the places. [Not a few of the false prophets—for instance, Mahomet—without premeditated foresight, have by slow and imperceptible degrees gained over parties of retainers, and afterwards deceived both themselves and others: accordingly, the circumstances of their birth and their condition, in their early years, are in the case of such impostors unknown, unworthy of trust, and fictitious. But the conception of Jesus Christ, His nativity, His infancy, His boyhood, etc., are supported as to their credibility by signally striking proofs. From eternity God hath definitely foreordained them, and hath by His ancient prophets declared them, and confirms their fulfilment subsequently by the instrumentality of irrefragable witnesses.—Harm., p. 59.]—τῆς Ἰουδαίας, of Judea) The theatre or scene of all the events.—ἱερεὺς, priest) not the high priest, but one from among the regular courses of priests.—ἐξ ἐφημερίας Ἀβιά, of the course of Abia) The priests were divided into twenty-four courses or classes: and the course of Abia was the eighth, according to 1 Chronicles 24:10 [Abijah = Abia]. Ἐφημερία in the usage of the LXX. answers to the Hebrew מחלקת, sometimes also משמרת. Each course in its order had the discharge of the priestly duties devolving on it for seven days, from Sabbath to Sabbath. [Hence it is allowable to infer that Zacharias discharged his turn of duty from the 2d of September to the 9th of September: see Ord. Temp., pp. 230, 231 (Ed. ii. pp. 200, 201): and the 2d of September that year among the people of Israel corresponded to the I. Tisri. Behold how, at the commencement of the year,[4] simultaneously with the angel’s message which was brought to Zachariah, the New Testament took its commencement.—V. g.]

[4] By the express direction of Moses the year began with Nisan (Exodus 12:2, Numbers 9:1). But this was the ecclesiastical year regulating the festivals; whereas the civil year began, as it begins now, with the month Tisri. The reason which the Rabbins assign for the month Tisri beginning the year is, that it was the month in which creation took place. If this be true, it is appropriate that the New Creation has its first commencements on the same month as the Natural Creation.—ED. and TRANSL.

And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.
Luke 1:6. Δίκαιοι, righteous) The condescending goodness of Scripture, which speaks of the righteousness of the pious, ought not to be treated as if it is in opposition to the doctrine of justification [by faith].—ἀμφότεροι, both) God brings forth His chosen instruments from pious parents.—ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, before [in the presence of] God) Genesis 17:1.—ἐντολαῖς, the commandments) viz. the moral ones.—δικαιώμασι) the ceremonial ones [ordinances], Hebrews 9:1.

And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years.
Luke 1:7. Καὶ, and) They no longer now had any hope of offspring, owing to a twofold cause [their age and Elizabeth’s barrenness]: Luke 1:18; Luke 1:36 (comp. Romans 4:19); and perhaps they were now not even seeking for [desiring] offspring.—προβεβηκότες, far advanced) A sweet description of the old age of the godly, which looks to the blissful goal [προβεβ. implying progress towards it].

And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course,
Luke 1:8. Ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ, in the order of his course) As to the chronological clue afforded by this passage, we have treated in the Ordo Temporum, p. 230 [Ed. ii. p. 200]. [In twenty-four weeks the courses of the priests returned back in rotation; and this alternation of courses prevailed even up to the destruction of the temple.—V. g.]

According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.
Luke 1:9. Ἔλαχε, he was allotted the office) The functions of the priests were distributed by lot.[5]—τοῦ θυμιάσαι, of burning incense) Exodus 30:1, etc.

[5] This was so, according to S. R. D. Crusius, Hypomn. P. I., p. 41, partly for the sake of order, partly to avoid contentions. Comp. 1 Chronicles 24:4-5.—E. B.

And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
Luke 1:10. Πᾶν, all) It must therefore have been a solemn day, and perhaps the Sabbath, on which Zacharias entered upon his duty, Luke 1:22-23.

And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
Luke 1:11. Ἄγγελος, an angel) the name of whom was afterwards communicated to Zacharias, Luke 1:19.

And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
Luke 1:13. Μὴ φοβοῦ, fear not) This is the first address from heaven in the opening dawn [aurora] of the New Testament, which is most charmingly described by Luke. The fact is here sweetly set before us; then we are led by rugged and severe paths to a most delightful issue. Such is also the case in the Apocalypse subsequently.—εἰσηκούσθη, has been hearkened to [granted]) This is to speak to the heart. [Zacharias in heart desired, though he no longer spoke.] Acts 10:4.—ἡ δέησίς σου, thy prayers) He had sought offspring in former days. [For he did not himself any longer cherish the expectation of the fulfilment of his desire.—V. g.]—Ἰωάννην, John) The name, John, was prescribed: the name of Mary was not prescribed.

And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
Luke 1:14. Χαρήσονται, shall rejoice) Luke 1:58; Luke 1:66.

For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.
Luke 1:15. Ἔσται, shall be) viz. that son shall be.—Κυρίου, the Lord) God the Father is meant. Presently after he speaks also of the Holy Spirit and of the Son of God. Already, in connection with the forerunner of the Messiah, the economy of the Holy Trinity more fully expands itself to view.—καὶ οἶνον καὶ σίκερα οὐ μὴ πίῃ, and wine and strong drink he shall not drink) So also Jdg 13:4, μὴ πίης οἶνον καὶ σίκερα. Σίκερα is from the Hebr. שכר, and denotes all drink distinct from wine, and yet intoxicating, as the juice of the date, malt liquor, etc. Such abstinence was enjoined on John, also on the mother of Samson.—καὶ, and) Similarly, being filled with the Holy Spirit, is put in antithesis to being drunk with wine, Ephesians 5:18.—ἐκ, from) An abbreviated mode of expression: meaning, in the womb (Luke 1:41; Luke 1:44) and subsequently [from that time forward].

And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
Luke 1:16-17. Ἐπιστρέψει, καὶ προελεύσεται, he shall turn, and shall go before) The words presently after in Luke 1:17, to turn, ἐπιστρέψαι, refer to the verb ἐπιστρέψει, in Luke 1:16 : and ἑτοιμάσαι, to make ready, refers to προελεύσεται.—Κύριον, the Lord) Christ is therefore God. Comp. the following verse, ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, before HimΚυρίῳ, the Lord: and in verse 76 [“the Highest—before the face of the Lord”].

And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
Luke 1:17. Αὐτὸς, himself) In antithesis to the others (πολλοὺς, many), Luke 1:16.—ἐνώπιον, before His face) in His immediate presence.—ἐπιστρέψαι, κ.τ.λ., to turn [convert], etc.) The language in this passage, as often in prophecies, is figurative, abbreviated, and as it were poetically with this sense: John shall effect that the parents as well as the children alike, the disobedient as well as the just alike, men of every age and character, may be prepared for the Lord. But it was not convenient to say: He will convert [turn] the disobedient and the unjust along with the obedient and just alike; for the just need no conversion. Therefore, instead of the concrete, the abstract is used: He will convert the disobedient to the state of mind of the just; i.e. those who disregard God’s law he will convert, or bring to such a state, that they will join themselves to the number of the just, putting on the docility and wisdom of these latter; and, just as the just are ready, so will the disobedient become ready for the Lord.—καρδίας, hearts) The heart is therefore the seat of conversion, of obedience, and of prudence.—πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα, of the fathers along with the children alike) Mal. 3:24, לב אבות על־בנים ולב בנים על־אבותם, LXX. καρδίαν πατρὸς πρὸς υἱὸν, καὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου πρὸς τὸν πλήσιον αὐτοῦ. The expression is equivalent to a proverb, so as to signify the multitude—the ‘many’ converted (Luke 1:16). So Genesis 32:11, μητέρα ἐπὶ τέκνοις. So decidedly πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα, Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:7 : also κνήμην ἐπὶ μηρὸν, Jdg 15:8. See also על, Amos 3:15; Jdg 12:1; and πρὸς, in the Son of Sir. (see the quotation below). At the same time there may be designed to be marked the care of the fathers for the salvation of their children, as opposed to what takes place in a flight such as Jeremiah 47:3 describes, οὐκ ἐπέστρεψαν πατέρες, ἐφ ̓ υἱοὺς αὐτῶν.—καὶ ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων, and the disobedient in [to] the wisdom [prudence] of the just) This is set down instead of what is found in Malachi: and the heart of the children upon [super: but Engl. Vers. to] their fathers. Disobedience is especially the fault of youths: prudence [wisdom] and justice are especially becoming in fathers. The angel says, in the prudence, not into [to] the prudence. The feeling [sentiments] of those who are just, is immediately put on in conversion.—ἑτοιμάσαι Κυρίῳ λαὸν κατεσκευασμένον, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord) Asyndeton [absence of copulative between ἐπιστρέψαι and ἑτοιμάσαι]: to convert [turn], to make ready. The people is to be made ready, lest the Lord, finding the people not ready for Him, should crush them with His majesty [“Lest I come and smite the earth with a curse”], Malachi 4:6. A people prepared, i.e. complying with the instructions of John, who makes them ready, and obedient to the Lord; no longer having such hearts as are described in Proverbs 15:7, ולב כסילים לא כן, LXX. καρδίαι ἀφρόνων οὐκ ἀσφαλεῖς, The hearts of fools are not safe [Engl. Vers. from Hebr., But the heart of the foolish doeth not so, i.e. do not disperse knowledge]. Let the antithetic terms be noted, ἀφρόνων and φρονήσει; and the kindred terms כן and ἑτοιμάσαι. Concerning Elias, see Sir 48:11, καὶ ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίαν πατρὸς προς υἱὸν, καὶ καταστῆσαι φυλὰς Ἰακώβ. That the work of the Son of Sirach is far from a low and common one, its accordance with the angel’s words proves. See also Matthew 23:34, note.

And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
Luke 1:18. Κατὰ τί γνώσομαι) So LXX., Genesis 15:8. The question of Zacharias is one affecting the very fact itself, thus betraying that he laboured under a want of faith: the πῶς, how, which Mary started as a question, was accompanied with faith: comp. Luke 1:34 [How?] with 45 [“Blessed is she that believed.”]

And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
Luke 1:19. Γαβριὴλ, Gabriel) The reason why Zacharias ought not to have had any unbelief, is the authority of the heavenly messenger. The name is compounded of גבר and אל, and indicates the main object of his embassy, viz. concerning the incarnation of the Son of God, אל is גבר, God is man. Gabriel had appeared to Daniel also. It was the same angel, and he came on the same business.—ὁ παρεστηκὼς, who am wont to stand in attendance) Seven angels stand in the presence of God, Revelation 8:2. One of these, Gabriel, stands in attendance [adstat, stands by], or stands with the six others.—ἀπεστάλην, I have been sent) Luke 1:26; Hebrews 1:14.—εὐαγγελίσασθαι, to show thee these glad tidings) Thus marking the beginning of the Gospel [= Glad tidings]: ch. Luke 2:10; Luke 2:17, Luke 3:18; Mark 1:1.

And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
Luke 1:20. Ἰδοὺ, behold) as much as to say, by this thou shalt be made know. An appropriate sign is given to him who asked for a sign, though the sign given was not such as he would have desired.—σιωπῶν, silent) in the matter of fact [actually].—μὴ δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι, not able to speak) in the want of the ability to speak [physically]. Comp. [accordingly in his recovery both are specified] Luke 1:64, the mouth and the tongue. For the most part, those to whom a great revelation is vouchsafed, are wont to lose something of their natural power, without however real hurt to them. So Jacob was made lame; but his lameness proved, not a blemish, but a mark of honour to him: so Zacharias here was made dumb: Saul (Paul) was for a time deprived of sight. This dumbness of Zacharias at the same time acted as a spiritual medicine, lest he should too much pride himself on account of the prophecy as to the greatness of his son.—ἄχρι ἧς) Comp. Luke 1:64 [His mouth opened] with Luke 1:13 [Thou shalt call his name John], 63 [When the ‘things’ foretold were ‘performed,’ and Zacharias, ceasing from unbelief, wrote, “His name is John”]. [The day alluded to was the day of John’s circumcision, on which he received his name.—V. g.]—ἀνθ ̓ ὧν, because) Therefore it was, strictly speaking, a punishment.—οὐκ ἐπιστεύσας, thou hast not believed) He did not believe: on this account he was not able to speak.[6]—πληρωθήσονται, shall be fulfilled) It is the event which chiefly produces faith.—εἰς τὸν καιρὸν αὐτῶν, at their own season) their proper season. Comp. at this time [will I come], Romans 9:9. 2 Kings 4:16.

[6] See 2 Corinthians 4:13.—ED. and TRANSL

And the people waited for Zacharias, and marvelled that he tarried so long in the temple.
And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.
Luke 1:22. Λαλῆσαι, to speak) for instance, to give the blessing. Zacharias, as being dumb, was in the meantime excluded from the exercise of all the functions of a priest. This constitutes the prelude to the termination of the ceremonial law, now that Christ is coming.—ἐπέγνωσαν, they perceived) A benefit thus accompanied the very punishment of Zacharias. Thereby all were stirred up to attention.

And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house.
Luke 1:23. Εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, to his own house) An abbreviated form of expression: the city, in which Zacharias dwelt, requiring to be understood. Comp. Luke 1:39. So also Luke 1:56. The house of Zacharias is put in antithesis to the temple of the Lord: see Luke 1:9.

And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying,
Luke 1:24. Ταύτας, these) the days of which Luke 1:23 makes mention [the days of his ministration].—περίεκρυβεν, She hid herself) that her pregnancy might be unobserved: owing to which, subsequently her pregnancy was suddenly made the more apparent.—λέγουσα, saying) to the partakers of [those who sympathized in] her joy.

Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.
Luke 1:25. Οὕτω, thus) even as all, five months afterwards, saw her [viz. pregnant].—ἡμέραις, in the days) definitely fixed beforehand.—ἐπεῖδεν) ἐπέβλεψεν, Luke 1:48; ἐπεσκέψατο, Luke 1:68.—τὸ ὄνειδος, my reproach) viz. the surname by which they called her, viz. barren, Luke 1:36.—ἐν ἀνθρώποις, among men) She had scarcely accounted herself as one of the human race [to be counted among men] on account of her barrenness.

And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
Luke 1:27. Πρὸς παρθένον, to a virgin) Matthew 1:23.—μεμνηστευμένην, [espoused] betrothed) by the divine ruling of Providence. It would not have been befitting that Mary should have been only betrothed after the annunciation of the angel, and not sooner.—ἀνδρὶ, to a man) who was designed to act as guardian both of the virgin and of her offspring.—ἐξ οἴκου Δαυίδ, of the house of David) Construe with Joseph; comp. ch. Luke 2:4. This is, however, not to the exclusion of Mary.

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
Luke 1:28. Εἰσελθὺν, entering in) At evening time, as is probable. Comp. Daniel 9:21.—κεχαριτωμένη) Ephesians 1:6. The Vulg. renders gratia plena, in a passive sense [“filled with grace”], (as Ovid, Carmina plena favoris), one who has found favour, Luke 1:30. She is so called, not as the mother of grace, but as the daughter of grace, especially at that early time.—μετὰ σοῦ) May the Lord be with thee [not, “The Lord is with thee,” as Engl. Vers.] Comp. Matthew 1:23, at the end of verse, and the note. It is parallel to, χαῖρε, Hail. The Indicative is taken for granted,[7] and the Optative here subscribes to [seals and confirms] it. So Jdg 6:12 [the angel to Gideon, “The Lord is (or rather, may the Lord be) with thee”], Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ.—σὺ, thou) The Vocative: as in Acts 4:24 [Δέσποτα, σὺ ὁ ποιήσας, etc.] Chrys de Sacerd., p. 322.

[7] The χάρις of the Lord, implied in χαῖρε, is with her.—ED. and TRANSL.

And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
Luke 1:29. Διεταράχθη, she was troubled) Her being troubled arose from the apparition itself (ἡ δὲ ἰδοῦσα, when she saw him). Therefore she does not seem to have been previously accustomed to apparitions. [All things, in the case of the blessed Virgin, both what was foretold to herself, and what ensued subsequently, befel her without her expecting them. But if her conception, as the tradition of several members of the Roman Church represents, had been immaculate, she could have hardly accounted herself, however superlatively modest, in such an ordinary position (so entirely undistinguished from ordinary men and women).—V. g.]—ποταπὸδ εἴη, of what kind may be) The formulæ themselves, which had been addressed to her, hail, and, the Lord with thee, were ordinary salutations; but from the peculiar and extraordinary titles which the angel added, Mary understood that the formulæ, especially as being conjoined with these titles, were employed with an extraordinary [distinguishing] and new force. In fact, in all the recorded apparitions of angels, there is no other instance occurs of such a salutation. Mary not only wondered, but also cast in her mind, of what kind might be, what was the meaning, and what the drift of this salutation.

And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
Luke 1:30. Εὗρες γὰρ χάριν, for thou hast found favour) Hebr. מצא חן. So Acts 7:46; Hebrews 4:16.

And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
Luke 1:31. Ἰδοὺ, behold) In the words following is contained a summary of the Gospel, which is repeated at Luke 1:50-51; Luke 1:68-69; ch. Luke 2:10-11; Luke 14:30-31. Comp. the words, 2 Samuel 7:8, etc.

He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
Luke 1:32. οὗτος, He) The Messiah is clearly described, even as at Luke 1:68, etc., and ch. Luke 2:30, etc.—μέγας, great) The greatness of John, described at Luke 1:15, is far exceeded by the greatness of Jesus, described here. [See Luke 1:33, and comp. Daniel 2:35; Ephesians 4:10.—V. g.]—Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται, He shall be called the Son of the Highest) Jesus, even in a point of view distinct from His Divine nature, and from His personal union with God the Father, is, in a sense transcendentally above all angels and men, the Son of the Highest, on account of the extraordinary nature [rationem, principle of His conception and nativity.—τὸν θρόνον Δαυὶδ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, the throne of David His father) Christ was promised to the fathers, especially to Abraham, as the Seed. He was promised by Moses, a prophet, as the Prophet. He was promised to David, a king, as the King. Even the temporal kingdom of Israel belonged to Jesus Christ by hereditary right. Massecheth Sanhedrin, ch 4, says, that Jesus is nearest to the kingdom, קרוב למלכות.

And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
Luke 1:33. Οἶκον Ἰακὼβ, the house of Jacob) Under this house are contained the Gentiles, even as, for the sake of illustration, there are contained under the appellation of the Rhine, the rivers that flow into it. But yet it is the house itself [Israel] which is principally alluded to, especially at this early period, and in an address to an Israelitish woman. At this early stage in the Gospel history, its progress is designated generally: the spiritual sense lies hid beneath. So Luke 1:68, etc.—βασιλείας, of His kingdom) Repeat, over the house of David, on the throne of David: Isaiah 9:7. That which has not yet been accomplished, shall be accomplished.

Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
Luke 1:34. Πῶς, how) This How is not inconsistent with faith, as Luke 1:45 proves.[8]—οὐ γινώσκω, I know not) The present is here used for [in accordance with and in reference to] the very moment of the conception, which was still future. She gathers from the words of the angel himself, that she is not about to know man. Ἐπεὶ, seeing that, is categorical [absolute]. Mary understood that this promise is being now given to her as one immediately about to be fulfilled, without respect to the consummation of her espousals. A woman is also said to know a man, Numbers 31:17; Jdg 9:39.

[8] The difference between her and Zacharias, Luke 1:18; lay not in the words but in the spirit.—ED. and TRANSL.

And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
Luke 1:35. Δύναμις ὑψίστου, the power of the Highest) Often these words are put in conjunction, Spirit and Power, as in Luke 1:17; but in this passage the Power of the Highest rather denotes, by Metonymy,[9] the Highest, whose Power is infinite. So we have the expression, the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1 Corinthians 5:4. The coming of the Holy Ghost upon Mary made her fit for receiving the overshadowing of the power of the Highest.—ἐπισκιάσει σοι, shall overshadow thee) This overshadowing denotes the mildest and most gentle [most modified] operation of the Divine power, whereby it was effected that the Divine Fire did not consume Mary, but made her fruitful. Comp. Mark 9:7 [the cloud overshadowed them at the transfiguration]; Exodus 33:22. Many suppose allusion is here made to חפה, veiled, as a bride. It was not fitting that the will of man or of the flesh should help towards this [the Saviour’s incarnation]. It was from the substance of Mary that the elements were taken, whatever contributed not only to the ΣΎΛΛΗΨΙς, the conception, but also to the nourishment of the holy fetus [embryo]. And this is considered [is to be viewed so], either antecedently to the moment of actual union with the Λόγος, or else in the very act and state of union. Antecedently to the union, it [what was taken from the substance of the mother] no otherwise than the mother herself, required to be redeemed by virtue of the λύτρον, redemption, about to be effected through the ΘΕΆΝΘΡΩΠΟΝ, God-man, Christ, and was sanctified by the Holy Spirit; and thus it was that the union of the ΛΌΓΟς and the flesh, now [made] holy, had place. I may purchase a farm: and out of the produce of that farm, when subsequently well cultivated, I may pay the price for the farm itself, which has become much more valuable since its cultivation. David bought the area [site] of the temple for a few shekels of silver [2 Samuel 24:24]; but the same area became inestimably valuable, when the temple was built upon it.[10]—διὸ καὶ, wherefore also) Thus the Angel gives a satisfactory answer to the question, How, Luke 1:34.—τὸ γεννώμενον,[11] which is being conceived [given birth to; not as Engl. Vers. Which shall be born]) in this new and extraordinary manner. Abstract terms, and such as are expressed in the neuter gender, are very much in consonance with those first beginnings of the Gospel revelation; Luke 1:68; Luke 1:71; Luke 1:78; Luke 2:25; Luke 2:30; Luke 2:38.—ἅγιον, Holy) This word is regarded by Tertullian, the Syr[12] Version, the author of the discourse against all heresies in Athanasius, and others of the ancients, as part of the predicate, It shall be called Holy, (and) the Son of God. At all events, the sense of the sentence is most full and compressed: There is a something which is to be given birth to: that which is being given birth to, shall be holy; this holy thing shall be called the Son of God. The whole is inferred from the immediately preceding words of the angel, and that in some such way as the following: The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee; wherefore that, which is being given birth to, shall be Holy. The Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; wherefore that Holy thing shall be called the Son of God. Luke 1:32 is parallel to this: Thy Son shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest. In Divine things, greatness and holiness very much harmonize. It was concerning this Holy One that the same angel spake in Daniel 9:24.

[9] See Append. Here the substitution of the Adjunct (the Power) for the Subject (the Highest).—ED. and TRANSL.

[10] So Jesus purchased our flesh (humanity) by the redemption about to be made by Him, and then afterwards, by the union of the Λόγος to it, and by the actual paying of the price of His blood, as God-man, made it infinitely more precious.—ED. and TRANSL.

[11] The words ἐκ σοῦ, of thee, subjoined to this participle, had been declared in the margin of the larger Ed. to be an improbable reading; but in Ed. 2 the reading is raised to the sign δ, and is given in the Vers. Germ., though enclosed in brackets. Therefore Bengel ought not to have been reckoned, in the Bibl. Theol. Tom. viii. p. 106, among those who have omitted these words.—E. B.

[12] yr. the Peschito Syriac Version: second cent.: publ. and corrected by Cureton, from MS. of fifth cent.

Lachm. reads ἐκ σοῦ (though in brackets), with C corrected later, ac, some MSS. of Vulg. Iren. Cypr.: and, before γεννώμενον, Hil. ABDb omit the words; and so Tischend.—ED. and TRANSL.

And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
Luke 1:36. Καὶ ἰδοὺ, and, behold) To Mary, inasmuch as she believed, a more favourable [pleasant] sign is without solicitation given, than had been given to Zacharias, who did not believe.—συγγενὴς, thy [cousin] kinswoman) Therefore John and Jesus also were kinsmen [cousins].—υἱὸν, a son) Elisabeth’s pregnancy was unknown among men, excepting the members of her own family; but here we find even the time and the sex of the offspring indicated to Mary by Divine information, with a view to strengthen the faith of Mary. But of the office of the Forerunner nothing is said; for Mary was about to hear that from his mother.

For with God nothing shall be impossible.
Luke 1:37. Πᾶν ῥῆμα, every word [thing]) As to things contradictory in the very terms, whether such are possible to happen, is not a subject which need be disputed; for they do not constitute a word [in the sense ῥῆμα, verbum, is here used, a true word or thing]: nor does a thing done and undone, i.e. true and false [a word verified and then falsified], constitute a word; for repentance of His deed or promise does not apply to God: Genesis 18:14, μὴ ἀδυνατεῖ παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ ῥῆμα; Is any word impossible with God? (Surely not.)

And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.
Luke 1:38. Γένοιτό μοι, be it done unto me) Compare the assent which David expresses to God’s covenant promise, 2 Samuel 7:25 [The word that Thou hast spoken—establish it for ever, and do as Thou hast said], 28.—ἀπῆλθεν, departed) even as he previously came in, Luke 1:28.

And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda;
Luke 1:39. Ἀναστᾶσα, having arisen) The angel had given her the suggestion [occasion] which led her to go, Luke 1:36.—[ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις, in those days) of the sixth month, Luke 1:26; Luke 1:36.—V. g.]—μετὰ σπουδῆς) Σπουδὴ, and its derivatives and compounds, often in the LXX. denote haste, בהלה.—εἰς πόλιν Ἰούδα, to a city of Juda) Luke does not specify the name of this city of the priests in the hill country, but from Joshua 21:11, we know it was Hebron; but he specifically sets down the name of the tribe, Juda. Here then it was, we may, not without good reason, conjecture, that the conception of Jesus Christ took place. [The haste of the holy virgin, just now noticed, is in consonance with this view.—Harm. p. 42.] Comp. Kohlreiff. in Jes. 30; and concerning the nativity of Jesus Christ in the land of Canaan, p. 96. Moreover, there were most remarkable motions and emotions in Elisabeth, and her infant in the womb, and in Mary, Luke 1:41-42 : also the particle γὰρ, for, in Luke 1:44, has an altogether peculiar weight, expressing the reason why, at this particular point of time, Elisabeth first proclaims Mary to be the mother of her Lord [Luke 1:43]. Of so great moment, in truth, is the conception, that, if it had happened at Nazareth, He would have been called a Nazarene for that reason, rather than on account of His parents dwelling there. But this fact of their dwelling there is given as the one and only cause of that surname which He bore [ch. Luke 4:16; Luke 4:24]. As it is, the Lord, both with reference to His mother and progenitors, and with reference to the places alike where He was conceived as well as born, was sprung from Juda.

And entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth.
Luke 1:40. Ἠσπάσατο, saluted) The salutations of the saints and those of the ungodly are altogether different. No mere effort of reason can comprehend how powerfully moving and how effectual is the will of the saints, which draws its resources from God by faith and love, and then turns the tide of them on friends capable of receiving them [susceptible to them].

And it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost:
Luke 1:41. Καὶ ἐπλήσθη, and was filled) The spiritual motions [and emotions] of the embryo and of the mother were conjoined: Luke 1:15.

And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.
Luke 1:42. Ἀνεφώνησε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ) So ἐφώνησε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Acts 16:28. Others read ἀνεβόησε[13] φωνῇ μεγάλῃ. And so Matthew 27:46; LXX., Genesis 27:38; 1 Samuel 28:12; Isaiah 36:13; Isaiah 11:13, etc. Also 3Ma 5:48 (51); Hist. of Sus. four times; Hist. of the Drag. Luke 1:40 (41). But ἀναφωνεῖν is employed in a very different sense; for instance, of the sounds heard in public worship, as it was duly ordered by David.—καὶ εἶπεν, and said) It was not until after these words which, coming from the Holy Spirit, followed immediately after the salutation of Mary, that Mary reported to Elisabeth what the angel had announced to her.—εὐλογημένη, Blessed) These words, which in the angel’s salutation were last in order, stand first in the salutation of Elisabeth.—καὶ εὐλογημένος, and blessed) This was not added in Luke 1:28.—ὁ καρπὸς, the fruit) Mary therefore was truly the mother of Jesus.

[13] C is the only good authority for ἀνεβόησε. ABD Origen expressly, 4,149ab, read ἀνεφώνησεν. The very strangeness of the use of the latter word is an argument for it not having come from transcribers: ἀνέβοησε was evidently a marginal explanation. Bengel’s own principle, “Præferatur ardua lectioni procliviori,” supports ἀνεφώνησε.—ED. and TRANSL.

And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
Luke 1:43. Ἡ μήτηρ, the Mother) This new appellation addressed to her, could not but move in her inmost soul the Virgin mother. The Mother, saith she, of my Lord; she does not, however, call her, My Lady [i.e. as if she had lordship, like Christ, over all].—τοῦ Κυρίου μου, of my Lord) Comp. ch. Luke 20:42; John 20:28.

For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.
Luke 1:44. Γὰρ, for) By this she seems to intimate, that at the same precise point of time both her infant-fœtus leaped, and Mary began in actual fact to be mother of our Lord. Comp. the ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν, from the-now-time [from this time forth].—ἐσκίρτησεν, leaped) Nor was that leap of salutation the one and only act of faith [in the infant John]; for he was “filled with the Holy Ghost” [even from his mother’s womb], Luke 1:15.

And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord.
Luke 1:45. Μακαρία, blessed) This is evident from the instance of Zacharias on the opposite side.—πιστεύσασα, who hath believed) Luke 1:38.—ὅτι ἔσται) that [but Engl Vers. for) there shall be.—αὐτῇ, to her [in particular]) This has an emphatic reference to ἡ πιστεύσασα, who hath believed, and is put instead of, to thee: just as in ch. Luke 13:34.

And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord,
Luke 1:46. Εἶπε, said) in words, or even in writing. Mary had received the Divine message after Zacharias, and yet she is the first to raise the hymn of joy: the songs of both ought as well to be compared together, as also with the words of the angel, Luke 1:28, etc., 13, etc.; and in another point of view with the language of Hannah, 1. Sam. Luke 2:1, etc., and with the thanksgiving of David, 2 Samuel 7:18, etc., on the same subject: also Psalms 34. The hymns of Mary and Zacharias breathe altogether the spirit of the New Testament. And Mary was divinely so guided, that, even though she did not understand all the particulars (as ch. Luke 2:33; Luke 2:50, implies), yet she spake out the mystery in words adapted to express even its most profound meaning. She praises God in the name of herself, and of her Blessed Offspring in the womb, and of Israel. The beginning of the hymn is in conformity with Psalm 31:8, LXX: Ἀγαλλιάσομαι καὶ εὐφρανθήσομαι ἐπὶ τῷ ἐλέει σον· ὅτι ἐπεῖδες ἐπὶ τὴν ταπείνωσίν μου.

And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.
Luke 1:47. Σωτῆρι, Saviour) Preserver. See on Chrys. de Sacerd. pp. 452, 453. This expresses the force of the name, Jesus, as given, Luke 1:31. [Mary, by this mode of expression, reckons herself among those things which had been lost. Even she had her salvation, not from herself, but from Jesus.—V. g.]

For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.
Luke 1:48. Ταπείνωσιν) the low estate. Jam 1:10. עני LXX. often render ταπείνωσις. Her lowliness made Mary capable of receiving the great things, of which Luke 1:32-33 speak.—μακαριοῦσί με, shall call [proclaim] me blessed) Comp. Luke 1:45, ch. Luke 11:27-28.—πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαὶ, all generations) all posterity.

For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name.
Luke 1:49-50, Καὶ, and) He [that is mighty, etc.], Whose name is holy, and Whose mercy, etc. [but Engl. Vers. “And holy is His name, and His mercy,” etc.] For these three clauses are joined together by the and, repeated. So the Hebrew relative, אשר, is often not expressed but understood. It is not until Luke 1:51 that the new paragraph begins.

And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.
Luke 1:50. Εἰς γενεὰς, to the generations) Although the promise may seem to be long retarded, yet it is fulfilled, and that too, to everlasting. It is the same generations which call Mary blessed, Luke 1:48.

He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
Luke 1:51. Ἐποίησε κράτοςἐξαπέστειλε κενοὺς, He hath showed strength—He hath sent empty away) God designed to do all these things through the Messiah, and the mother of the Latter was receiving an experimental proof of the fact in her own self.—ὑπερηφάνους, the proud) both those visible and those invisible [Satan, etc.] of this character.

He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree.
Luke 1:52. Δυνάστας, the mighty [potentates]) as Saul, and Herod.

He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.
Luke 1:53. Πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν, He hath filled the hungry with good things) Psalm 107:9, LXX. ψυχὴν πεινῶσαν ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν. To the 10th verse of the same psalm corresponds also the Song of Zacharias, Luke 1:79.—ἐξαπέστειλε, He hath sent away) Though they might have seemed to be the nearest to God.

He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy;
Luke 1:54. Ἀντελάβετο, He hath helped) in the fact of His sending the Messiah. The same verb is given as the rendering of נשא, 1 Kings 9:11.—παιδὸς, servant) So Luke 1:69.—μνησθῆναι) for this reason, because He remembered; or else, in order that He might evince Himself mindful, Luke 1:72; Habakkuk 3:2.

As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever.
Luke 1:55. Ἐλάλησε, He spake) with an oath, especially to David.—πατέραςἓως αἰῶνος, our father—even to all ages) Mary comprises the past and future.—τῷ) Construe thus,—μνησθῆναι ἐλέους τῷ Ἀβραάμ [not ἐλάλησεντῷ Ἀβραάμ]. Micah 7:20, LXX. δώσεις (εἰς) ἀληθείαν τῷ Ἰακὼβ, ἔλεον τῷ Ἀβραὰμ, καθότι ὤμοσας τοῖς πατράσιν ὑμῶν κατὰ τὰς ἡμέρας τὰς ἔμπροσθεν.[14] Psalm 98:3, ἐμνήσθη τοῦ ἐλέους αὐτοῦ τῷ Ἰακώβ. Also Psalm 119:49.—ἕως, even to) Construe with τῷ σπέρματι, to his seed.[15]

[14] The Vatican LXX. reads δώσει εἰς ἀλήθειαν, etc.—πατράσιν ἡμῶν. Engl. Vers. from Hebrew, “Thou wilt perform the truth to Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old.”—ED. and TRANSL.

[15] ABD omit ἕως αἰῶνος. C supports it, as also A in the Psalms, bc Vulg. “in sæcula.”—ED. and TRANSL.

And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.
Luke 1:56. Τρεῖς, three) She departed before the birth-giving [confinement] of Elisabeth.—εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτῆς, to her own house) from which she had been some time before commanded to go, in order to stop at Bethlehem. [Therefore it is to this (point of time) belong the statements which Matthew has inserted, at his ch. Luke 1:18-24, in the narrative itself concerning the nativity of Christ.—Harm., p. 42.]

Now Elisabeth's full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son.
And her neighbours and her cousins heard how the Lord had shewed great mercy upon her; and they rejoiced with her.
Luke 1:58. Μετʼ αὐτῆς, had showed great mercy upon her [dealt in great mercy with her]) So ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων, to perform mercy upon our father [to deal in mercy with our fathers]: ch. Luke 10:37, note.[16]

[16] Hellenistic construction, as in LXX. 2 Samuel 9:1, etc.—ED. and TRANSL.

And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father.
Luke 1:59. Ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, after the name of his father) This was not the custom among the Jews: but in this case an extraordinary cause moved the members of the family, inasmuch as John was to sustain the whole posterity of [was the sole representative to posterity of] Zacharias.

And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John.
Luke 1:60. Εἶπεν, said) by special revelation. For if she had learned it from Zacharias by letter, there would have been no need that the question should be again asked him, as it was in Luke 1:62.

And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name.
Luke 1:61. Συγγενείᾳ σου, thy kindred) They supposed that Elisabeth, if she chose to give a name different from that of Zacharias, would follow [adopt one of] the names of her own family. [Even in this respect it was befitting that something new and unprecedented should be done.—V. g.]

And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called.
Luke 1:62. Ἐνένευον, they made signs) To one dumb it is more convenient, that he should see persons making signs, than that he should hear them speaking, inasmuch as he is not able to reply to them by word of mouth. It is not probable that Zacharias was also deaf.—τὸ) The article is here demonstrative.

And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all.
Luke 1:63. Πινακίδιον, a tablet) If the relics of the Gospel histories, which are usually shown, were as genuine as they are numerous, there is no doubt but that Providence would have preserved this tablet.—ἔγραψε, λέγων, he wrote, saying) He wrote in these words: Luke 1:64.[17] Comp. 2 Kings 10:1; 2 Kings 10:6; 2 Chronicles 21:12.—Ἰωάννης, John) The last writing in the Old Testament ends in חרם, i.e. [“lest I come and smite the earth with”] a curse, Malachi 4:6. This, the first instance of writing in the New Testament, begins with grace [John in Hebr. = the grace or favour of God].—ἔστι, is) Zacharias does not so much command, as indicate the Divine commands.—ἘΘΑΎΜΑΣΑΝ, they marvelled) at the newness of the name, without precedent in the family, and at the unanimity of Zacharias and Elisabeth on the question of the name, though there had been no consultation between them, which must therefore have been the result, not of preconcerted design, but of a revelation, which had been vouchsafed to each of the two.

[17] This verse shows his ‘mouth’ was not yet ‘opened:’ therefore ‘saying’ does not mean oral words.—ED. and TRANSL.

And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God.
Luke 1:64. Αὐτοῦ, of him) i.e. Zacharias.

And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill country of Judaea.
Luke 1:65. [Φόβος, fear) This whole affair breathed of Divine guidance.]—πάντα, κ.τ.λ., all, etc.) All whatsoever is recorded from Luke 1:11.

And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be! And the hand of the Lord was with him.
Luke 1:66. Ἔθεντο, laid up) A most wholesome study [deliberation]: that the connection of the several events should be carefully observed after long intervals elapsing in the Divine operations. Comp. ch. Luke 2:18-19.

And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying,
Luke 1:67. Προεφήτευσε, prophesied) concerning the events which were immediately about to be. These prophesyings were spoken by Zacharias, either on the very day of John’s circumcision, or after that the fact had become widely circulated.

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people,
Luke 1:68. Ὅτι, because [for]) Zacharias is especially speaking of Christ, Luke 1:69 : and of John only as it were incidentally: see Luke 1:76.—ἐπεσκέψατο, κ.τ.λ., He hath visited and made redemption) i.e. He hath visited so as to make redemption, etc. The same verb occurs in Luke 1:78.—[λύτρωσιν, redemption) However earnestly desired by Zacharias John was, yet the former speaks first concerning Christ, and that, in an especial manner and most fully: he speaks of John only as it were in passing, Luke 1:76.—V. g.]

And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David;
Luke 1:69. Κέρας, a horn) Psalm 132:17. This term signifies abundance and kingly strength. The article was not suitable to be added at that early period. So also Luke 1:68; Luke 1:71; Luke 1:78. Afterwards the fact of itself claimed these names more openly as belonging to Jesus Christ alone.—σωτηρίας, of salvation) In allusion to the name, Jesus: comp. Luke 1:71; Luke 1:77. John only gave the knowledge of salvation: the Lord gave salvation itself.—Δαυὶδ, David) Psalm 132:17; Psalm 132:6.—παιδὸς) עבד, servant, Psalm 132:10.

As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began:
Luke 1:70. Καθὼς ἐλάλησε, as He spake) The point at which Mary left off, Luke 1:55, is the same as that at which Zacharias now begins.—διὰ στόματος, by the mouth) To prophesy cost the prophets no labour in so far as they received the power from God; whatever it cost them, was merely in so far as they had to put forth their prophecies to men hostile to them. They needed merely to lend their mouth [for God to supply the words]: nay, even “a mouth” was given tham, Luke 21:15.—ἁγίων, holy) There was no prophet that was not holy:[18] 2 Peter 1:21; Hebrews 11:32-33.—ἈΠʼ ΑἸῶΝΟς, since the world began) Even from the very beginning there were prophets.

[18] Balaam seems an exception. But perhaps Beng. means by ‘sanctus’ consecrated to God, and set apart from other men by God to His service.—Ed. and Transl.

That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us;
Luke 1:71. Σωτηρίαν, salvation) Understand, I say. The idea contained in an horn of salvation [Luke 1:69], is repeated in a briefer form. [A horn of salvation—salvation, I say, from our enemies, etc.]—μισούντων, who regard us with hatred) He describes the spiritual benefits in language still in conformity with the phraseology of the Old Testament, viz. language applicable to temporal aid.

To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant;
Luke 1:72. Ποιῆσαι) [to perform] by performing.—ἔλεος, the mercy) Mercy and remembrance of the covenant is the same as חסד ואמת, grace and truth.—μετὰ, with[19]) The antithetic word is ἐξ, from [our enemies], Luke 1:71.—τῶν πατέρων, our fathers) long since deceased:[20] ch. Luke 20:37-38.—μνησθῆναι, [to remember] by remembering) An allusion to the name Zacharias.[21]

[19] But Engl. Vers. “promised to.” Rather, as Luke 1:58, μετʼ αὐτῆς; “to perform mercy in His dealings with our fathers.”—ED. and TRANSL.

[20] And yet still He is their God: therefore the covenant still holds good.—ED. and TRANSL.

[21] Which in Hebrew means one whom the Lord remembers, from זָכַי, to remember.—ED. and TRANSL.

The oath which he sware to our father Abraham,
Luke 1:73. Ὅρκον, ὃν) That is ὅρκου, ὃν, [ὅρκου in apposition to διαθήκης, Luke 1:72.] It depends on μνησθῆναι, [to remember] in remembrance of.—τοῦ δοῦναι) On this depends ῥυσθέντας λατρεύειν, i.e. δοῦναι, ἵνα ῥυσθέντες λατρεύσωμεν. The article indicates that the preceding infinitive, ποιῆσαι, is explained by this subsequent infinitive.[22] So also Luke 1:77 compared with the preceding words [ἑτοιμάσαι ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ, τοῦ δοῦναι]: and also Luke 1:79, and ch. Luke 2:22; Luke 2:24.

[22] The Genitive (τοῦ δοῦναι) is often used to express the reference in which a thing is taken: as here, “to perform His mercy, viz. in respect to His granting to us.”—ED. and TRANSL.

That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear,
Luke 1:74. Ἀφόβως, without fear) The Fear of our Enemies, not fear of the Lord Himself, and that a filial fear, is set aside: Hebrews 2:15, [To deliver them who, through fear of death, were all their lifetime subject to bondage.]—λατρεύειν, that we might serve) This constitutes the Priesthood of the New Testament.

In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.
Luke 1:75. Ἐν ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ, in holiness and righteousness) The same combination of words occurs, Ephesians 4:24; 1 Thessalonians 2:10. Righteousness expresses conformity to the law: holiness, conformity to nature.—πάσας) on every day [all the several days]: Hebrews 2:15.

And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;
Luke 1:76. Καὶ, and) Answering to what Zacharias has heretofore sung [prophetically uttered], there now correspond those words which follow: concerning grace towards His people, Luke 1:77 answers to the previous Luke 1:68; concerning salvation, Luke 1:77 answers to Luke 1:69; concerning mercy, Luke 1:78 answers to Luke 1:72.—παίδιον, thou child) How little soever thou art now. He does not call the infant by name. He speaks as a prophet, not as a parent.

To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins,
Luke 1:77. Γνῶσινἀφέσει, knowledge—in [by] the remission) Hebrews 8:11-12; Jeremiah 9:23.—ἐν, in [Engl. Vers. by]) Construe in with salvation [σωτηρίαςἐν ἀφέσει].—ἀφέσει, remission) which is the Foundation of Salvation.

Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us,
Luke 1:78. Διὰ, through) Construe with ἀφέσει, remission—through, etc.—ἐλέους, of mercy) An allusion to the name John: [In Hebr. = the mercy or grace of the Lord.]—[ἐπεσκέψατο ἡμᾶς, hath visited us) He was the Saviour even before that He assumed human nature. For His incarnation was a visiting of us of His own free choice.—V. g.]—ἀνατολὴ) So the LXX. render צמח, Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12; Jeremiah 23:5 : for צמח is also said of the dawn of daylight. See John Gregor. Observ. c. 18, Tom. vii. Crit. col. 585, where there is a copious and admirable dissertation. There is a Metonymy of the Abstract for the Concrete, Day-spring [day-rising], i.e. the Sun-rising. See following verse [“to give light,” etc., which applies to the sun itself, not to its rising]; Joshua 9:1; Revelation 22:16.—ἐξ ὓψους, from on high) This is said concerning the Son of God in this passage, and concerning the Holy Ghost in ch. Luke 24:49 [Endued with power from on high]: comp. Galatians 4:4; Galatians 4:6. So [The second man is the Lord] from heaven, 1 Corinthians 15:47.

To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.
Luke 1:79. Ἐπιφᾶναι, so as to give light to [to shine in full manifestation on]) Again comp. Psalm 132:17 [I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed].—τοῖςκαθημένοις, them that sit) Comp. Matthew 4:15, note on the passage of Isaiah quoted there.—σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου, in darkness and the shadow of death) These are conjoined as their opposites, light and life.

And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.
Luke 1:80. Ηὔξανε, grew) in body.—ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις, in the deserts) Here the more inward and remote parts of the desert are denoted; but in Matthew 3:1 [“the wilderness of Judea,” where John began his preaching]: it is the exterior desert that is meant. He remained exempt from contact with [lit. rubbing with] life in its ordinary and polluted forms. The Forerunner of Christ, and Christ Himself, had experience themselves, and gave a specimen to others, of both kinds of life; and indeed, first, of a solitary mode of life, afterwards also of a public one.—ἓως, even up to) Ch. Luke 3:2-3.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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