William Kelly Major Works Commentary
Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.Luke Chapter 24
LUKE 24: 1-12 589
Matthew 28:1-8; Mark 16:1-8; John 20:1-13.
The Sabbath day had interrupted the loving labours of the women with their spices. "On the first [day] of the week, very early [at deep dawn] in the morning" they* returned.590 Love is usually quick-sighted; it might have the sense of coming danger where others were dull; it might have the presentiment of death where others saw triumph and the effect of burning zeal for God and His house. None but God could anticipate the resurrection. Their labour was bootless, as far as their own object was concerned, whatever might be the reckoning of grace. In these scenes of profoundest interest Jesus alone is perfection.
*After "prepared," in the rest of the verse, Blass, with Acorr DXΓΠΔ and all later uncials, nearly all minuscules, Syrr. Sah. Arm. and Eusebius, adds "and some others with them." Other Edd. omit, as BCpm L, 33, most Old Lat. Memph.
And they found the stone rolled away591 from the sepulchre; and entering in they found not the body of the Lord Jesus.*592 And it came to pass, in their perplexity about it, that behold, two men593 stood by them in shining raiment. And as they were fearful and bending their faces to the ground, they said to them, Why seek ye the living One among the dead? He is not here, but is risen:† remember how he spoke to you, being yet in Galilee,594 saying, That the Son of man.595 must be delivered up to the hands of sinners, and be crucified, and rise the third day." But men, and even saints, are dull to appreciate the resurrection; it brings God too near to them, for of all things none is more characteristic of Him than raising the dead, and most of all resurrection from among the dead must be learnt by Divine teaching as only He could reveal it of His grace. For this breaks in upon the whole course of the world and displays a power superior to nature, triumphant over Satan, which delivers even from Divine judgment. Here it was the Deliverer Himself: often had He told the disciples of it; He had named even the third day. Yet those who were most faithful, as they understood not at the time, so remembered not afterwards till the fact had taken place and heavenly messengers recalled His words to them afresh. "And they remembered his words; and, returning from the sepulchre,‡ related596 all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. Now it was Mary Magdalene,597 and Joanna, and Mary the [mother] of James, and the rest with them, who§ told these things to the apostles. And these words appeared in their eyes as an idle tale, and they disbelieved them."598
*"Of the Lord Jesus": so Weiss, with some earlier Edd., after ABCL, all other uncials but one, all cursives, Syrr. other than Cureton's and Sinai, Memph. Arm. Aeth. Blass omits the words, which W. H., exceptionally following D and Old Latt., discredits. Cf. R.V. mar-. and see, further, note 592 in App.
†"He is not here, but is risen": so all authorities except D and Itala. Nevertheless, W. H., Blass, and Weiss agree in treating the words as no part of the primitive text.
‡"From the sepulchre": retained by Weiss, as in all authorities but those mentioned in last note, with Memph. and Arm. W. H. brackets; Blass omits.
§"Who": so corr X, etc., Syrr. Memph. Arm. Edd. (Revv.) reject, as pm ABDEFGH, etc., Old Lat. Sah. Aeth., according to which there would be two sentences in the verse; the first ending either with "James" (W. H.) or with "them" (Weiss). Blass omits all after "them."
The resurrection of the Saviour is the foundation of the Gospel; but it is the writers of the Gospels themselves who let us know both the ignorance and the obstinate unbelief of those who were afterwards to be such devoted and honoured witnesses of Jesus. Nor need the believer wonder. For if the Gospel be the revelation of God's grace in Christ, it supposes the utter ruin and good-for-nothingness of man. Doubtless it is humbling, but this is wholesome and needed; no sinner can be too much humbled, no saint too humble; but no humiliation should weaken for a moment our sense of the perfect grace of God. The lesson must be learnt by us in both ways; but of the two the sense of what we are as saints is far more profound than of sinners when just awakening to feel our real state before God. And this is one of the great differences between evangelicalism and the Gospel of God. Evangelicalism owns the fallen and bad estate of man as well as the mercy of God in the Lord Jesus Christ; but it is altogether short when compared with God's standard, death and resurrection. It owns that no power but that of Jesus. can avail; but it is rather a remedy for the sick man than life in resurrection from the dead. It is the same reason which hinders saints now from appreciating themselves dead and risen with Jesus that made the disciples so slow to comprehend the words of Jesus beforehand, and even to receive the fact of His own death and resurrection when accomplished.
We may observe, too, how little flesh could glory in what we have here before us. Out of weakness truly the women were made strong, while they who ought to have been pillars were. weakness itself or worse. The words of the witnesses of the great truth seemed in their eyes a delirious dream, and they who were afterwards to call men to the faith know by their own experience, even as believers, what it is to disbelieve the resurrection. How this would enhance their estimate. of Divine grace! how call out patience no less than burning zeal in proclaiming the risen One to incredulous man! He who had so borne with them could bless any by Him Who died for all.
"But Peter, rising up, ran to the sepulchre, and stooping down he sees the linen clothes lying alone, and went away home,* wondering at what had happened."†599 It is to John we are indebted for telling his part and God's analysis of his own inner man. "Then entered in therefore the other disciple also who came first to the tomb, and he saw and believed. For they had not yet known the scripture that he must rise from the dead." "He saw and believed." It was accepted on evidence: he no longer doubted that Jesus was risen; but it was founded upon his own sight merely of indisputable fact, not on God's Word. "For as yet they knew not the scripture that he must rise from among the dead." Still less was there any intelligent entrance into God's counsels about resurrection, any adequate understanding of its necessary and glorious place in the whole scope of the truth.
*Such is the true connection and rendering of πρὸς ἑαυτόν with ἀπῆλθε, not with θαυμάζων, as in the Authorised Version and many others. (B.T.)
†This verse is retained by Lachm. and Treg., but rejected by Tisch. and Blass, and discredited by W. H. and Weiss, who suppose that it was drawn from John 20:4. It is, however, attested by AB, 1, Syrrcu sin. The Syrr., with corr and B, omit (as Revv.) κείμενα, "lying (laid)," whilst. pm AKΠ have not μόνα, "alone (by themselves). "
Luke 24: 13-35.600
Next our Evangelist gives us fully and with the most touching detail that appearing of the risen Lord which the Gospel of Mark sums up in a single verse: "After that he was manifested in another form to two of them as they walked going into the country."
Here I cannot doubt that it is a testimony to the walk of faith to which the Lord, no longer known after the flesh, would lead on His own. It is of no consequence who the unnamed one may have been. They were disciples staggered by the crucifixion of the Messiah, whom grace would comfort, founding their faith on the Word and giving the saints to see Jesus unseen, Whom they knew not while they looked on with natural eyes. One of the ancients, Epiphanius, conjectured the companion of Cleopas to be Nathaniel; among moderns the learned Lightfoot is confident that he was Peter. We may rest assured that both were mistaken, and that he could not have been an apostle; for on returning to Jerusalem the two found "the eleven" among those gathered together. (Verse 33.) The grand point of moment is the Lord's grace in leading them out of human thoughts to Himself as the Object of all the Scriptures, and this, too, as first suffering, then entering His glory.
"And behold, two of them were going on the same day to a village, distant sixty* stadia from Jerusalem, called Emmaus; and they conversed with one another about all these things which had taken place. And it came to pass while they conversed and reasoned, that Jesus himself drawing nigh went with them. But their eyes were holden so as not to know him. And he said to them, What words [are] these which ye interchange with one another as ye walk and are downcast?†601 And one [of them], named Cleopas,602 answering said to him, Dost thou sojourn alone in Jerusalem and knowest not602a the things come to pass in it in these days? And he said to them, What things? And they said to him, The things concerning Jesus the Nazarean,‡ who was603 a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to [the] judgment of death and crucified him. But we had hoped that he was [the one] about to redeem604 Israel; but then also§ with all these things, this is the third day since these things came to pass. And withal, certain women from among us astonished us, having been early at the sepulchre, and, not having found his body, came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels who say that he is alive. And some of those with us went to the sepulchre, and found even as the women also had said; but him they saw not."605
*"Sixty": so Edd., after ABDL, etc. "One hundred and sixty" is in [Kpm Npm Π, etc., and Old Lat.
†The reading of the Sinaitic, Alexandrian (first hand it would seem), Vatican, Parisian (L. ἔστησαν), confirmed by some excellent ancient versions [Egyptian], is ἐστάθησαν [R.V. "stood still"], the effect of which would be to close the Lord's question with "as ye walk," and to present the words "and they stood downcast" as the consequence before Cleopas answers. This appears to me as remarkably graphic as it is according to the manner of Luke. (B.T.) So Tisch., Treg., W. H., and Weiss. Blass, following D, omits περιπατοῦντες καὶ ἔστε, and also rejects ἐστάθη αν.
‡"Nazarean": so Blass, after ADN, etc. Edd. "Nazarene," with BL.
§"Also": so Edd. with BDL, 1, 33, and Arm. It is not in ANP, etc.
How blessedly we see the way of the Lord Jesus drawing the hearts of men of God with the cords of a man! In resurrection He is still truly man, "the same yesterday, today, and for over," and adapts Himself to the heart, even though, as Mark lets us know in the verse already cited, their eyes were holden so that they should not recognize their Master: He had appeared "in another form." But He drew out their thoughts to lead them into the truth, in order that the very sorrows of His rejection, which seemed so inexplicable to them and inconsistent with their expectations, might be seen to be required by the Divine Word, and thus be a confirmation, not perilous, to their faith. They had looked for redemption by power; they now learn in His suffering to the uttermost, the Just for the unjust, redemption by blood; and not this only, but a new life out of death, and superior to it, witnessed and established and given us in Him, Satan's power in sin and its consequences being vanquished for ever, though for the present only a matter of testimony to the world and of enjoyment by the Holy Ghost to the believer.
"And he said to them, O senseless and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken!606 Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things and to enter607 into his glory? And beginning from Moses and from all the prophets,608 he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself."
Such is the real secret of unbelief in believers. They fail because they do not believe all. Having but a partial view of Divine truth, they easily exaggerate here or there; and the rather as, not reading Christ throughout Scripture, they are apt to shirk that rejection in the world now which disciples must accept or at least experience if they follow the Master, as surely as they will share His glory by and by. In the world, as it is, Christ could not but suffer; and everyone who is perfected shall be as He. It is morally inevitable as due to the Divine nature, as well as required by the Word. It could not be otherwise, God being what He is, and man a sinner in thraldom to the enemy. But now He was dead and risen; and they must know Him thus, no longer according to their old and Jewish thoughts. We have Christ's own word for it, that He was in the mind of the Spirit in all the Scriptures; and they are blind or blinded who see Him not in every part of the Bible. He is the truth, but it is only by the Holy Ghost we can find Him even there.
A great lesson was taught during the walk to Emmaus. The accuracy and light of the Scriptures showed where men, and even believers, had overlooked much. The Jews had contented themselves with their general testimony to the hopes of the nation and the glory of the kingdom; but they had passed by, as the Lord proved, what was really deeper and now of the most essential importance - the sufferings of Christ, no less than the higher and heavenly part, at any rate, of the glories which should follow. The Lord condescended to draw the evidence from the written Word of the Old Testament, rather than to take His stand upon present facts alone, or His own fresh revelations. But more was needed than the value of Scripture thus proved, and this He supplies.
"And they drew near to the village where they were going, and he made* as though he would go farther. And they forced him, saying, Stay 609 with us, because it is towards evening and the day is sunk low. And he went in to abide with them. And it came to pass as he was at table with them, having taken the bread, he blessed, and, having broken, gave [it] to them.610 And their eyes were opened thoroughly, and they recognised him, and he disappeared from them."
*Blass reads, as T.R., the imperfect (προσεποιειτο, "he was for m.") with PX, etc.; other Edd., the aorist (προσεποιήσατο), as ABDL, 1.
Not that the occasion was the Eucharist, but that He chose the act of breaking the bread, which He had previously made the symbol of His death for us, to be the moment and means of making Himself known to the two disciples. Thus was He to be known henceforward, no longer after the flesh, but dead and risen. Old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new, and all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself by Jesus Christ.
Hence, too, the moment he was recognised He vanished from them. It is no longer a visible Messiah, any more than a living one after the flesh. He is only rightly seen by the Christian when unseen, yet He must have come and accomplished the mighty work of redemption first. For this purpose He had died, having glorified His Father on the earth and finished the work given Him to do. But this done, He does not yet take His ' old and predicted place on the throne of David. This awaits the day when Israel shall be brought back repentant and blessed in their own land, under His glorious reign, and all the earth shall reap the fruits to the praise and glory of God the Father. But, for the present, new things have come in. The Redeemer is gone to heaven, not come to Zion, and on earth He is known by His own disciples in the breaking of bread, His presence being exclusively known to faith.
"And they said to one another, Was not our heart burning in us, as he spoke to us on the way,* as he opened to us the scriptures? And having risen up that hour, they returned to Jerusalem and found assembled the eleven and those with them saying, The Lord is indeed risen and hath appeared to Simon.611 And they related the things on the way, and how he was made known to them in the breaking of bread." As the angel had expressly said, "Go, tell his disciples and Peter" (Mark 16:7), so He appeared to Cephas (1 Corinthians 15:5), then to the twelve.
*AEPXΔ, etc., 1, 69, Amiat. put "and" before the second "as." This the Edd. omit, with BDL, 33, Memph.
Mark 16:14-18; John 20:19-23.
And so it is taught us here, "And while they were talking these things, he himself* stood in their midst, and says to them peace to you.612 But confounded and being frightened, they supposed they beheld a spirit."613 And he said to them, Why are ye troubled, and wherefore do reasonings613a rise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet that it is I myself; handle me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones even as ye see me have. And having said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.† And while they were yet unbelieving for joy and wondering, he said to them, Have ye anything to eat here? And they gave him part of a broiled fish [and of a honeycomb].‡ And having taken, he ate before them." It is the Lord Himself, risen from the dead, but a real man, with hands and feet, capable of being handled and seen, not a spirit, but a spiritual body. Of this He gave the fullest proof by proceeding to eat in their presence. As having a body He could eat; as having a spiritual body He did not need to eat.614 Thus the resurrection of the body had its glorious attestation in His own person, the needed and weightiest possible support of their faith. Christianity gives an immensely enlarged scope to the body as well as the soul; for our bodies are now the temple of the Holy Ghost as surely as we are. bought with a price, and exhortations to Christian holiness are founded on this one wondrous fact. Christ was the great Exemplar of man; His body was the temple of God. We are only fitted for it through His redemption.615
*"He himself": so Edd., as BDL, Syrrcu sin Sah. "Jesus himself" is the reading of AEG, with later uncials and most minuscules (1, 33, 69) and Memph. The words, "and says to them, Peace to you," although accepted by Lachm. and Treg., are questioned by most of the Edd., because of absence from D and copies of Old Lat. See John 20:19. They are in all other MSS. and versions.
†Verse 40 (cf. verse 12) is doubted by most Edd. from its omission in D, the Syrrcu sin and Old Lat., also because of likeness to John 20:20. It is in AB, all later uncials but Beza's, in the cursives, the other Syrr. and the Egyptians, and is upheld by Lachm. and Treg.
‡["And a honeycomb"]: so EHKM and the other later uncials, the cursives 1, 33, 69, most Syrr. and Old Lat., Memph. Aeth. Arm. Edd. omit, following ABDLΠ, Syrsin.
But, further, there is a message. "And he said unto them, These [are] the* words which I spake unto you, while being yet with you, that all that must be fulfilled that is written in the law of Moses and prophets and psalms concerning me. Then he thoroughly opened their understanding to understand the scriptures, and said to them, Thus it is written† that the Christ should suffer and arise from [the] dead the third day;616 and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all the Gentiles beginning at Jerusalem.617 Ye are witnesses of these things. And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but do ye settle in the city,‡ until ye be endued with power from on high." It was no new thing for the Lord to disclose His death and resurrection. He had been intimating it from before the transfiguration with increasing plainness; but they had heeded little a truth the need of which they did not feel for themselves and the moral glory of which for God they could not yet see. It was impossible to affirm with truth that it was a surprise to Jesus, or that law, psalms, and prophets had overlooked it, for on this truth of His death and resurrection hang the types as a whole, and this is the deepest burden of the prophets and of the psalmist. But now the suffering Christ was risen from among the dead, and repentance and remission of sins must be preached in His name to all the nations with Jerusalem as the starting-point. What wondrous grace! The nations had slain Him at Jerusalem's instigation, but God is active in His love above all the evil of man or of His own people.
*"The": so, Blass, as T.R., from , etc., Syrr. and Latt. Other Edd. follow ABDKL, etc., 33, and Aeth., which have "my."
†"Thus it is written," etc.: so Edd. after BCpm DL, Memph. Aeth. "Thus it behoved" is the reading of ACcorr N, etc., most cursives (1, 33, 69), Syrr. and Vulg.
‡After "city," ACcorr XΓΛΠ, all later uncials, all cursives, Syrr. Arm. Aeth., add "of Jerusalem," which Edd. omit, following BCpm DL, most Old Lat. and Memph.
It is well to note, however, that repentance is preached with remission of sins; nor can we exaggerate its importance if we do not misuse it to depreciate God's work of grace by Jesus Christ our Lord. Many, no doubt, misuse it, and more misunderstand it; but repentance abides a necessity for every soul which looks out of its sins to the Saviour. He has finished the work by which comes remission of sins to the believer; but it is not the faith of God's elect where the soul overlooks its sinfulness, where the Holy Spirit does not produce self-judgment by the Word of God applied to the conscience. Faith, without such a recognition and self-loathing and confession of our sins and state, is only intellectual, and will leave us to lie down in sorrow when we most need solid ground and peace with God. Repentance, on the other hand, Is no preparation for faith, but the accompaniment of it, and is alone real where faith is of God. It is deepened, too, as faith sees more clearly.
It is well to note also that the promise of the Father is distinct from repentance and remission of sins, as it is, again, from the opening of the understanding to understand the Scriptures. These the disciples had already; they had to wait for the promise of the Father. Till the descent of the Spirit they were not endued with power from on high. Then the Holy Ghost, sent down from heaven, wrought variously to the glory of the Lord.
Luke 24: 50-53.618
"And he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands, be blessed them. And it came to pass, while he was blessing them, he was separated 619 from them, and was carried up into heaven.* And they having done him homage,† returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the temple praising and blessing God."‡ To that spot outside Jerusalem Jesus had often gone. There was the family that He loved; thither He leads the disciples for the last time on earth, and thence, in the act of blessing, with uplifted hands, He parts from them and is borne up into heaven - the risen Man, the Lord from heaven. What a contrast with him who fell, and all the earth through him, transmitting the curse to his sad descendants! Here it is not the first Adam, but the Last; and "as is the heavenly, such are they also who are heavenly." Filled with peace and joy, what could they do but continually praise and bless God, Who had in the second Man accomplished His own will, though at infinite cost, and perfected them that were sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. They were, and are, perfected in perpetuity: no less a result than this satisfies God's estimate of the sacrifice of His Son. But assuredly the promise of the Father, when fulfilled, did not make the joy less or the praise more scanty. For He is not only power for testimony, but also for the soul, the One Who gives us now the full taste of fellowship, and causes worship to ascend to our God and Father in spirit and in truth. But of this the sequel of Luke, commonly called the Acts of the Apostles, is the due and full witness, and there, if the Lord will, we may enter into the detailed account which the Spirit has given us of His work, whether in individuals or in the Church, to the glory of the Lord Jesus.§ Truly our fellowship is with the Father and With His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.
*"And was carried up into heaven": so Lachm., after ABCLXMΛΠ, etc., later uncials, all minuscules, most Syrr. Vulg. Memph., Cyril and Augustine. Other Edd. discredit it, following pm, D, Syrsin, some Old Lat. See W. H., App., p. 73.
†"Having done him homage": so Lachm. and Treg., after all MSS. except Beza's, and versions except most of Old Lat., which other Edd. follow for the bracketing or omission (Tisch.) of these words.
‡"Praising and blessing": so Lachm. and Treg. (text), after corr XΔM, etc., all cursives, some Old Lat., Amiat., etc. W. H. and Weiss omit "praising and," with BCpm L, Syrrsin hier; Tisch. and Blass omit "and blessing," with D and some Latt. Memph. and Augustine. It may be a "conflation." At end, ABCcorr XΔ, etc., 69, Syrr. Amiat. add "Amen," which Edd. omit, as Cpm DLΠ, 1, 33, Syrsin, several Old Lat. Memph.
§See "The Acts of the Apostles, with a New Version of a Corrected Text, Expounded," 2 vols. (1895).
NOTES ON THE TWENTY-FOURTH CHAPTER.
589 The RESURRECTION (cf. notes 167 on Mark, 356 on John). Besides the parallels set out in margin of the Exposition, see 1 Corinthians 15:4. Before entering on details in Luke seriatim, it may be well to prefix some general remarks on the attitude of criticism towards this cardinal article of the Christian Faith.
The Evangelists' joint record is impeached in five particulars: in respect of (1) time, (2) the number of women, (3) the appearance of angels, (4) their instructions to the women, and (5) the scene of the Lord's appearances (Selbie, p. 148).
A. The so-called "discrepancies" are primarily of a forensic nature, calling for skill in their investigation such as is possessed by lawyers, habitually concerned with weighing evidence, in which shine few merely literary critics, the trained intelligence of whom is of another order (see note 15 on Mark). Here these are really in no better position than readers of ordinary culture, belonging to the class from which a "petty" jury is empanelled, who in marshalling the whole of the evidence, may be aided by the professional experience of the court, but have to decide upon it for themselves, and are generally right. Many Biblical critics affect to do the work of a "grand" jury, which, after all, is only preliminary to the thorough investigation of the case falling to the less pretentious functionaries, to whose judgment the τεκμήρια (Acts 1:3) are submitted.
(1) See note 167 on Mark, third paragraph. (2) Ibid., fifth paragraph. (3) See note below on verse 4. (4) See note 167 on Mark, as for No. 2. (5) See note 167a on Mark.
B. The historical critic comes on the scene to have his say about the alleged "legendary" matter in the record. The most imposing figure here in critical literature for several years was D. F. Strauss. He propounded an idea, inconvenient for those who were to follow him in the same line of attack, that "no one of the narrators knew and presupposed what another records" ("Life of Jesus," iii. p. 344). The French writer Loisy applies his ability to this department of criticism: and Lake, an English clergyman, now holding a congenial chair at Leiden, has issued a volume grounded on the fact, which no one has ever disputed, that there was no human witness of the act of bodily resurrection: history takes no cognizance of that which is solely a Christian belief founded on dogmatic reasoning. Cf. his letter to the Guardian of 29th Sept., 1911. His position is: "The actual resurrection of the Lord was not from Joseph of Arimathea's sepulchre, but from the body which He left hanging on the Cross." But, from the historical point of view, such a belief can only be subjective: there was no human witness of any such resurrection as that either. Those who believe in Christ's physical resurrection are, from the same point of view, in no weaker position.
Harnack has provided his Berlin hearers and his readers everywhere with a conundrum: "We must hold the Easter faith even without the Easter message" ("The Essence of Christianity," p. 163). But Romans 10:17 stands in the way of this (cf. note 614 below).
Allies of these writers are those who engage in "psychical research": see, e.g., the work of Dr. James H. Hyslop bearing on the Resurrection. Cf. further, art. in Interpreter, April, 1910, "Psychology and the Resurrection," for the bearing of sub-consciousness on the disciples' experience (cf. note 614 below).
C. Finally, the textual critic presents himself, whose business is to investigate the "growth" of the text in each case, and determine "accretions," if any. This part of the case finds notable illustration in the disputed verses at the end of Mark's Gospel (note 168 there) - the supposed earliest record, subsequent, as generally admitted, to the circulation of Paul's greater epistles (e.g., 1 Corinthians and Romans).
The foot-notes in the present volume exhibit the textual phenomena of the Gospel with which it is concerned.
In addition to the literature named in note 356 on John, mention should be made here of Bishop Westcott's posthumous "Gospel according to St. John," pp. 334-336, and of Professor Orr's valuable recent work on the Resurrection. Dr. Jas. Drummond treats of the Resurrection from a Unitarian point of view in pp. 30-37 of his pamphlet, already referred to, on "The Miraculous in Christianity."
590Luke 24:1. - According to Westcott's arrangement, that which is recorded here was preceded by the events narrated in John 20:1, Mark 16:1-2; Mar 16:5, etc., Matthew 28:5.
Loisy goes out of his way to criticize Luke's statement with regard to the spices as if too late to be of use - which is unaccountable save as careless comment. It is a question of further embalmment, Nicodemus having provided and employed spices already at the time of burial (John 19:39 f.).
591Luke 24:2. - "The stone rolled away." Luke, according to a peculiarity of his record, has not previously mentioned this stone. Cf. note on Luke 4:23.
592Luke 24:3. - "The Lord Jesus": as Acts 1:21. See textual footnote. Hort says that "Lord Jesus" is not found in the genuine text of the Gospels, but for this he has to discredit "B" itself. The exegetical insight of Weiss keeps the German critic right in this place.
For "the body of Jesus," see Luke 23:52.
593Luke 24:4. - Observe that the second company of women spoken of here (cf. John) see two angels, while an early company have seen only one. Cf. note on Mark 16:1, ad fin.
The caustic words quoted by van Oosterzee of the great Lessing, whose memory all Germans delight to honour, might be commended to the younger men of the Theological Faculties at the present day, some of whom represent the class that the editor of the Wolfenbüttel Fragments had in mind. The appeals to "cold discrepancy-mongers" who cannot see that "the Evangelists did not count the angels," that "the neighbourhood of the sepulchre swarmed with them." Such are words of a man all of whose predilections were on the side of DOUBT.
594Luke 24:6 f. - The angel that Matthew and Mark speak of recalled to the women there concerned the words of the Lord to His disciples as to His appearances in Galilee. This has been passed over by Luke, because his record is designedly limited to the Judean connection and resists all imputation of inconsistency.
595Luke 24:7. - Wesley notes how the Lord Himself (see verse 26 of this chapter) did not use the title "Son of Man" after His resurrection.
596Luke 24:9. - "Related," etc. See note on Mark 16:8, as to "said nothing to any one" in that Gospel.
597Luke 24:10. - "Mary Magdalene ": see John 20:2.
"The other women," as Salome (Mark 16:1).
598Luke 24:11. - "An idle tale." Sir O. Lodge adopts the language, now familiar, of others in describing the women's narrative as "legend" ("Man and the Universe," p. 274). It is noticeable that the disciples themselves anticipated the nineteenth century phraseology by calling their report λῆρος, fable; but those honest men had soon to cross the Rubicon, pull down bridges and burn boats.
This seems to be antecedent to John 20:3.
599Luke 24:12. - John 20:5 speaks of Peter's first visit, accompanied by "the disciple whom Jesus loved." Luke is speaking of the second, solitary visit, resulting from the report of the angels' words. On returning from this later visit, Peter met the Lord: to this the Evangelist refers in verse 34.
For the relation of Luke's to the fourth record, cf. further John 20:10.
Here the thread of Luke's, as of Matthew's record diverges from that of Mark, and remains distinct to the end.
600Luke 24:13 ff. - Those following Westcott's arrangement will regard this as the third appearance (cf. Mark 16:12), the two earlier being: (1) to Mary Magdalene (John 20:14-18, Mark 16:9) and (2) to the other women (Matthew 28:9, etc.). But it may have been preceded by that in verse 34: cf. consecutive use of εἶτα and ἔπειτα in 1 Corinthians 15:5 f., and, in reverse order, in verse 23 f. there. Critics, one after another, emphasize Paul's as the earliest account, which says nothing about women (1 Corinthians 15:5-8). But he is equally silent on what is recorded in these verses.
In verse 16, "know" might be replaced by "recognize" (ἐπιγνῶναι); and so in verse 31.
601Luke 24:17. - Field has criticized the R.V. here ("Ot. Norvic.," iii., p. 60).
602Luke 24:18. - "Cleopas": not to be confounded, as by Alford, with Alphaeus. The name here is an abbreviation of Cleopater (Wellhausen). As to the belief that Luke himself was the other, see note 2; also paper of Carr in Expositor., Feb., 1904.
602a "Thou sojournest alone," i.e., "art the only sojourner who does not know."
603Luke 24:19. - "Was"; or, "proved," ἐγένετο.
604Luke 24:21. - "Hoped . . . redeem." This is opposed to a now current theory that it was only after His death the disciples regarded JESUS as Messiah. Even Wernle rejects that idea. Cf. Selbie, p. 97.
"Third day." Gunkel seeks to derive this from Babylonian or Orphic mythology; but see Orr, Expositor, October, 1908. As to Eastern method of reckoning time, see Khodadad, p. 15.
605Luke 24:24. - See verse 11 f., and notes thereon.
606Luke 24:25. - The Apostles, notwithstanding what we are told in Luke 18:31-33, had no effective expectation of the Resurrection of JESUS. The intended embalming by the women (verse 1: cf. Mark 16:1 f.) supposes its impossibility.
"Senseless"; or "foolish" (ἀνόητοι); not "fools" (ἄφρονες, 11: 40), applied to scribes and Pharisees.
607Luke 24:26. - "Enter." See note 99 on Mark.
608Luke 24:27. - "From Moses and from all the prophets." Lindsay has a good note, working this out from each book of the Old Testament concerned; so also Neil. Richard Cecil said: "If we do not see the golden thread through all the Bible, marking out Christ, we read the Scripture without the King." So already Augustine: "The Old Testament has no true relish if Christ be not understood in it" (Ninth Tractate on John). Cf. 2 Corinthians 3:17, "the Lord is the spirit," and Colossians 3:16, "the word of the Christ." As a first aid to such study of the Scripture, book by book, one of the very best works of its kind is that by A. M. Hodgkin, "Christ in all the Scriptures" (2nd ed., 1908).
609Luke 24:29. - "Stay," A.V. "abide," which inspired Lyte's well-known hymn, "Abide with me. "
See Pusey's Sermon, "How to detain Jesus in the Soul" (vol. i.), and Maclaren, p. 346 ff.
610Luke 24:30 ff. - As to use made of this by Roman writers for "Communion in one kind," see Wordsworth in loc.
For verse 32 (cf. verse 45), see Psalm 119:130.
With verse 33, cf. John 20:19 f.
611Luke 24:34. - (Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:5). This would, according to Westcott's arrangement, he regarded as the fourth appearance. But see note on verse 13. How can Bousset, who (on 1 Corinthians 14:5) says that Luke treats the appearance to Peter as before all others, make that square with 10 f. here?
Bishop Mcllvaine has preached from this verse, and Principal Whyte's discourse, LXXXIX., in "Bible Characters," is on "Cleopas and his Companion."
612Luke 24:36. - Cf. Psalm 22:22. The fifth appearance (Mark 16:14, John 20:19).
Augustine preached from this verse (1., p. 480).
613Luke 24:37. - Cf. John 20:20 and note there.
613a Luke 24:38. - "Reasonings." American Revv., "questionings."
614Luke 24:39 ff. - A difficulty has been made (see, e.g., Loisy's last work, p. 772: cf. D. Smith, xl.) about the risen Lord's eating, founded on the assumption that His body was here already in a glorified condition. This does not seem to have come about fully until the Ascension, the body meanwhile undergoing gradual transformation.
With this incident cf., of course, that recorded in Genesis 18:7 f.
Selbie remarks that Paul cannot have held a material resurrection. But if he did not, 1 Corinthians 15:3, "buried," compared with verse 12, "from among [the] dead," becomes very difficult - surely impossible - to interpret. The Lord's body rose; His spirit or soul is not spoken of. Cf. Blass, "The Holy Scriptures and the Evangelical Church" (against Kalthoff). Again, Paul tells the Corinthians that there was no difference between what he and the other Apostles preached (verse 11).
The Apostle's real position is categorically stated in Colossians 2:9, Php 3:21 and the Lord's bodily resurrection is clearly implied in Romans 8:11. Cf. 2 Timothy 2:8, where, if JESUS was of the seed of David physically, and His body passed among the dead, to exclude this from the last part of the verse is scarcely "scientific."
615Luke 24:44-50. - The statement is often made that our Evangelist supposed the Lord ascended to heaven on the same day that He rose (verse 50). The one thing against that idea is that it is from Luke himself we learn that forty days intervened (Acts 1:3); so of course some way out of the collapse of the supposed "discrepancy" has to be found, and this is the fancy that the Evangelist later on discovered more. Such triviality abounds in current literature.
Cf. Essay of Bishop Chase on the break between verse 45 and that immediately following. Verses 49 and 50 show a like break.
"Law of Moses . . . Psalms." Cf. Prologue to Ecclesiasticus. In Matthew 23:35, the Lord refers to the first and the last books (Genesis, Chronicles) of the Hebrew Canon, by which we may gather that its limits were already fixed.
Luke 24:45 f. - See John 20:9, where Psalm 16:10 (cf. Acts 2:25 ff.) is probably the Scripture meant; see, however, also Hosea 6:2 (Bousset on 1 Corinthians 15:4) and note 365.
Maclaren: "He led them to believe all that the prophets have spoken. That faith being effected, sight followed. The world says, Seeing is believing, but the converse is truer, believing is seeing" ("B. C. E.," p. 319).
616 "His obedience showed Him to be equal with God" (Chapman, "Choice Sayings," p. 23 f.).
Isaac Barrow has a sermon on verse 46 ("Works," v., 462).
617Luke 24:47. - See verse 33, "and those with them gathered together," and cf. John 20:21-23, with Westcott's remarks on the commission being "to the entire society, and not confined to any particular group."
In assigning cause of the modern deficiency of candidates for "orders," it is usual to disguise the most potent of all, viz., the fact that men of spiritual zeal in every class of English society now "addict themselves" (1 Corinthians 16:15) to ministry of the Gospel and spare bishops their ordination: cf. 1 Corinthians 9:16. It is not such men who dally with higher criticism and the like, and if others refrain from ordination under its influence, that may be for the public good. The future of English Christianity is now very much in the hands of the "laity," so-called.
SIN, and its forgiveness. - This all-vital subject has only been touched on in note 147A (cf. note 284). For the Biblical definition of Sin as developed in the New Testament, see 1 John 3:4 (R.V.). In v. 8 of this Gospel it appears as disease; in Luke 19:14 as rebellion. It is essentially godlessness (Dr. Chalmers, Bishop Gore, Prof. Orr). Romans 1:28 shows that it severs a link between the Creator and creature, who has a natural sense of guilt, illustrated by Luke's account of the Gentile Felix (Acts 24:25).
Prof. Reinhold Seeberg of Berlin has recently described it as "the opposite of Faith and Love: Sin is faith in the world and love of the world" ("Fundamental Truths of the Christian Religion," p. 179, E. T.). Thus in Luke 15:12 we have in the "far country," the world and its service.
The present Bishop of Oxford has struck a true note when in his "Creed of the Christian" and some Oxford sermons he affirmed the great need in our day of reviving a just sense of the gravity, the solemnity of SIN. The eminent Unitarian, Dr. James Martineau, emphasized this already fifty years ago, in his "Studies of Christianity": "The nature of sin," he said, "is a matter on which we cannot be mistaken. . . . The conscious, free choice of the worse in presence of a better" (pp. 468-470).
The effect of Darwinian conceptions on modern views of Sin has been ably dealt with by Dr. E. Dennert, in a German pamphlet on Darwinian Christianity (p. 25 ff.).
Before the days of the Gospel, the earliest use made in still extant religious literature of what Gen. 3. sets before us, that is, the idea of the Fall, appears in Wisdom xi.: Inherited tendencies to evil, which Tennant, following in the wake of Ritschl, has challenged under the theological description - derived from Augustine - of "Original Sin" (Griffiths' "Essays for the Times," No. XII.). The most pronounced Protestant statement of it is that in the Westminster Confession (Shorter Catechism, Ans. to Q. 18), the antithesis of the idea of Rousseau, in the eighteenth century, and of Meng-tsé two thousand years earlier, that Man is naturally good: the Presbyterian Divines asserted his "total" depravity. This, rightly understood, means, as Orr ("Sidelights on Christian Doctrine," 1909) has pointed out, that every part of his being is impaired, not that he presents no fair exterior or exhibits no praiseworthy qualities (Mark 10:21). These indeed exist, to obscure the presence of the evil principle within, which is, moreover, checked by force of conventionality or custom. Such qualities Calvin compares to "wine spoiled with the flavour of the cask." Nevertheless, Sir R. Anderson has remarked in his book,"The Bible or the Church?" "The truest test of a man is, not what he is, but what he would wish to be" (p. 14). It remains sadly true, however, that "if a corruption of nature means anything at all, it means the loss of free-will" (Mozley).
Opposition to the Biblical concept of the moral ruin of man appears in interpretation of the Lord's teaching in this Gospel, from use made of the Parable of the Prodigal Son: see already note 389a ff. Now the apostle of Modern Culture was the "world-poet," facile princeps in German Literature. Wernle writes: "The aim of Jesus stands out in the sharpest contrast to the modern idea of culture, the free and full development of the individual personality we associate with the name of Goethe. We today count sin as a part of our development" ("Beginnings, etc.," p. 78). Here is one of the roots of the so-called "New Theology," popularized in England on the Holborn Viaduct, with "mistaken pursuit of good"; and in Russia, etc., by the writings of Leo Tolstoi. It is voiced by the poetry of Whittier:
"That to be saved is only this -
Salvation from our selfishness."
On its highest plane, it is the programme of the "Ethical Societies," which seize the Christian idea of human solidarity for a use nowhere sanctioned by any words of the Lord. Nevertheless, the promoters of this movement are not to be ranked with the unhappy Nietzsche, who, not satisfied with calling SIN "a Jewish invention," could speak of "the salvation of the soul" as "the world revolving round me" - only confirming the prediction of the Apostle Jude in verses 14-16 of his Epistle. These heterogeneous elements working together must issue in manifestation of the "Man of Sin."
Any reader able to use a book in German should see the pamphlet on "Atonement," confuting the current academical view, by Dr. L. von Gerdtell, who has the advantage of being neither a professor nor a pastor.
Universal experience attests the existence of what the Bible calls SIN, which Orr, with confirmation of Science, has called "racial," as recognizing the doctrine of heredity: this emphasizes the organic unity of the sons of men. With Bishop Gore it may be said that Sin is "not outgrown experience of history" (op. cit., p. 19). "What we need today is some John the Baptist" (p. 44).
"It is only," writes Garvie, "in the contemplation of Sin's remedy that the sense of Sin's disease has been fully developed" ("The Gospel for Today," p. 94). On the subjective effect of the Cross, see ibid., p. 123 ff.
As to Synoptic teaching on Sin, see Stalker, "Ethic of Jesus," chapter xi.; on Repentance, ibid., chapter vii.
If the Gospel of LUKE evince the Lord's judgment of Man, as being what at different periods such as Augustine, Calvin, and Spurgeon or Moody have proclaimed, its testimony is unmistakable and clear as to the possibility of Forgiveness. With the present passage cf., in particular, 11: 4. Martineau ("Hours of Thought," p. 110 f.) from the religions, Greg ("Creeds of Christendom"), Leslie Stephen ("Essays") and Miss Edith Simcox ("Essays") from the ethical, point of view have modernized the Stoic idea (as to which see Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p. 159), that forgiveness of sins past is out of question. Thus the first-named distinguishes between "God's interior nature and His external government," and makes all hinge ultimately on government. "A mediator may renew my future, but he cannot change my past" ("Studies of Christianity," p. 476). Nobody, however, denies the principle stated in Galatians 6:7; because Christians, Catholic and Evangelical alike, all in varying degrees, confess both Grace and Government, and maintain that each is eternally true. Government men can understand; but Grace, as revealed in the Bible, is beyond their thoughts (Romans 11:33, Ephesians 3:19): the two principles find their reconciliation in the Deity of the Redeemer. For those who confess Christ not only as Lord but as GOD, it is impossible to occupy common ground with such as reject that belief.
Martineau further says: "Can the punishment precede the sin? You cannot fall, you cannot recover, by deputy" (ibid., p. 475). The one difficulty is analogous to the principle of Romans 3:25, where forgiveness, in the inchoate form of "forbearance," anticipates Atonement, and that by virtue of the transcendency of the coming One, who should make propitiation for the world ("the same, yesterday, today and for ever"); whilst the other raises the question, "What is the true view of Substitution?" This latter process, as sometimes stated, is detached from the element of identification with Christ's death in Pauline teaching, thereby exposing the doctrine to reasonable objection. That "no merely external thing is done for" the believer (Dean of Westminster, at Church Congress, 1908), is assuredly true. All that is needed is for Christians to give practical expression to the truth of Romans 6:6, Galatians 2:20, by their conduct, so silencing all cavil.
Ritschl held, after Luther, that the gift of Forgiveness "the individual appropriates to himself within the community" ("Justification and Reconciliation," p. 577, referring to Jeremiah 31:31-34; Mark 14:24). As some English followers have put it, "Salvation is in the Christian circle." But these would scarcely hear of Ritschl's tendency to subordinate Religion to Morality (see note 147B), as the supposed bond of society with God; and it is the scheme of that "Ethical Religion" (ibid.) which nowadays is by so many deemed an adequate expression of the Synoptic "Kingdom of God." His follower Harnack reproaches the Apostles for, as the Berlin luminary alleges, not preaching the "Kingdom" as Christ did, and for making Christ glorified their only theme. Some considerations explanatory of the seemingly diminished prominence of the Kingdom in the hands of the Apostles may be seen in Candlish, "The Kingdom of God," pp. 180-185; but it is hoped that notes on this subject in the present volume bring out the rationale of what those men of God taught and have left behind in their writings. He that claimed to be "not a whit behind the very chiefest apostle" distinctly proclaimed the Kingdom (Acts 20:25-27, Acts 28:31), as references to his Epistles amply show. The Apostle James's Epistle is saturated with it, and it is not absent, from Peter's writings, nor from the Fourth Gospel (cf. note 457a). The "historical church" alone is to blame for the neglect of it.
W. Kelly, in his "Exposition of the Acts of the Apostles," vol. ii., p. 198 f., at Acts 20:25 has written: "It is a grave blank where the Kingdom is left out as now," speaking of "the large place it occupies in the Apostles' preaching." Cf. Knowling, on the same passage, with reference to Paul: "In his first Epistle (1 Thessalonians 2:12), as in his last (2 Timothy 4:18), the Kingdom of God is present to his thoughts"; in 1 Thessalonians 2:9, as in 2 Timothy 1:11, 2 Timothy 4:17.
That the Apostles' writings (including the Fourth Gospel) have developed the Lord's teaching as given to us in the Synoptic Gospels is what one would expect from His implied authority to do so in the words ascribed to Him in John 16:12: theirs is the permanent expression of "the mind of Christ" (1 Corinthians 2:16), with regard to the state of things resulting from His death, for which the Synoptic teaching was only preparatory. Unrecorded sayings of His must be embedded in the Epistles. It is largely from the same men who were depositories of Christ's Word on earth that we have derived the developed apostolic teaching (Acts 2:42). Until the redemptive work was accomplished, the Lord Himself was "straitened" (Luke 12:50). It was delegated to "a chosen vessel," Paul, to formulate the truth of Reconciliation, Justification, etc.
618Luke 24:50 f. - The ASCENSION (cf. notes 77 and 615). We may observe again Luke's adoption of the Old Testament manner of narration.
Awkwardly for critics, Matthew does not record the Ascension; it would have suited their system better had he done so, with the necessary implication that it was from Galilee!
Bethany was about two miles from Jerusalem.
619Luke 24:51. - "Was separated," or, actively, "stood apart" (διέστη).
One of Bishop Hall's "Contemplations" is on the Ascension.
EDITIONS OF AUTHORS USED.
N.B.-Foreign Works existing in English translations are recorded under the titles of such; all are cited in the notes by English titles. *Roman "Catholic," †Unitarian, ‡Jewish.
ABBOTT, DR. E. A.: Art. "Gospels" in Encyclopaedia Biblica:
Corrections of Mark adopted by Matthew and Luke (1902).
‡ABRAHAMS, I.: Judaism (1907).
ADENEY, PRINCIPAL. The Gospel according to St. Luke (Century Bible) (1903).
ANDERSON, SIR R.: The Lord from Heaven (1910).
BARNES, A. S.: Westminster Lectures ; The Witness of the Gospels (1906).
*BARRY, DR. W.: The Tradition of Scripture (1906).
BEBB, LL. J. M.: Artt. "Luke the Evangelist" and
"Gospel of Luke" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
BENNETT, PROFESSOR: The Mishna as Illustrating the Gospels (1885).
A Primer of the Bible (1897).
BRUCE, DR. A. B.: The Kingdom of God (1889).
The Parabolic Teaching of Christ (1889).
Apologetics, 2nd ed. (1893).
Synoptic Gospels, Expositor's Commentary on Luke (1897).
BURKITT, PROFESSOR: The Gospel History and its Transmission (1906).
The Earliest Sources for the Life of Jesus (1910).
BURGON, DEAN: Plain Commentary on St. Luke's Gospel (1877).
CAIRNS, D. S.: Christianity and the Modern World (1906).
CAMPBELL, COLIN: Critical Studies in St. Luke's Gospel (1891).
†CARPENTER, PRINCIPAL: The Bible in the Nineteenth Century, Lect. Vf. (1903).
CARR, A.: Notes on St. Luke (1875).
CASSELS, W. R.: Supernatural Religion, 7th ed. (1889).
CHARLES, PROFESSOR: Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life (1899).
Art. "Eschatology" in Encyclopaedia Biblica, vol. ii.
CHASE, BISHOP: The Gospel in the Light of Historic Criticism ("Cambridge
*CLARKE, R. F.: The Pope and the Bible (Catholic Truth Society) (1889).
COOKE, DR. R. J.: The Incarnation and Recent Criticism (1907).
*DARBY, J. W., and SMITH, 8. F.: Catholic Commentary on St. Luke's Gospel (cited as DARBY-SMITH) (1897).
DENNEY, PROFESSOR: Studies in Theology, 7th ed. (1902).
The Church and the Kingdom (1911).
DODS, DR. M.: Introduction to the New Testament (1888).
ELLICOTT, BISHOP: Historical Lectures on the Life of Our Lord (1876).
*EXPLANATORY CATECHISM of Christian Doctrine.
FAIRBAIRN, DR. A. M.: Philosophy of the Christian Religion (1902).
FARRAR, DEAN St. Luke's Gospel in Greek (Cambridge Series).
FIELD, DR. F. Otium Norvicense (1886).
GARVIE, PRINCIPAL: The Gospel according to St. Luke (Westminster N. T.) (1911).
GLOAG, DR. P.: Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels (1895).
GOODWIN, DEAN, afterwards BISHOP: Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke (1865).
GORE, BISHOP: The Creed of the Christian (1905).
Dissertations on the Incarnation (1895).
GWATKIN, PROFESSOR: Selections from Early Writers Illustrative of Church History (1902).
HABERSHON, Miss A. R. The Study of the Parables (1905).
HARRIS, DR. J. RENDEL Side Lights on New Testament Research (1908).
HAWKINS, SIR J. C.: Horae Synopticae, 2nd ed. (1909).
HERVEY, BISHOP LORD A.: The Authenticity of the Gospel of St. Luke (1892).
JONES, BISHOP BASIL: Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke (Speaker's) (1878).
KENYON, SIR F. G.: Handbook of Textual Criticism (1901).
KINNEAR, J. BOYD: The Foundation of Religion (1905).
KNOWLING, PROFESSOR: The Witness of the Epistles (1892).
Literary Criticism and the New Testament (1907).
LAKE, PROFESSOR: The Text of the New Testament, 4th ed. (1908).
LINDSAY, PRINCIPAL: The. Gospel according to St. Luke, with Notes (1886).
MACALPINE, SIR G. W.: The Days of the Son of Man (1905).
MACLAREN, DR. A.: Bible Class Expositions: The Gospel of St. Luke (1892).
Expositions of Scripture: St. Luke (1908).
MARGOLIOUTH, PROFESSOR: Edition of Works of Flavius Josephus, trans. by Whiston (1906).
MASON, DR. A. J.: Christ in the New Testament ("Cambridge Essays ") (1905),
MAURICE, F. D.: The Gospel of the Kingdom of Heaven (1864).
MEAD, G. R. S. ("Theosophist"): The Gospels and the Gospel (1902).
MOFFATT, DR. JAS.: Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (1911).
‡MONTEFIORE, C. G. ("Reform" or "Modern") The Synoptic Gospels (1909).
MOULTON, PROFESSOR W. J.: Art. "Parables in Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels.
NEIL, C., AND OTHERS: The Teacher's Classified Lesson Material, vol. iii. The Four Gospels (1894).
NEWTON, B. W.: Aids to Prophetic Enquiry, 3rd ed. (1881).
NICOLL, SIR W. R.: The Incarnate Saviour (1897).
NORRIS, ARCHDEACON: Notes on the New Testament (1880).
ORR, PROFESSOR: God's Image in Man and its Defacement, 3rd ed. (1907).
Pamphlet on the Virgin Birth of Christ (1907).
Paper in "Expositor," on Gospel Narratives and Critical Solvents, reproduced in "The Resurrection," etc. (1908).
OXFORD Studies in the Synoptic Problem (ed. by Sanday) (1911).
PEAKE, PROFESSOR: Critical Introduction to the New Testament (1909).
PLUMMER, DR. A.: The Gospel according to Luke (1896).
Art. "Parables" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
PRAYER BOOK for Congregations of British Jews in Hebrew and English, ed. by Singer, 7th ed. (1904).
PULLAN, L.: Art. "Gospel of Luke" in Murray's Illustrated Bible Dictionary (1908).
RAMSAY, SIR W. M.: Was Christ born at Bethlehem? (1898).
St. Paul the Traveller (ed. of 1905).
Artt. in Expositor (1907). "Professor Harnack on Luke," "The Oldest Written Gospels," reproduced in Luke, the Physician, and other Studies (1908).
RUSHBROOKE, W. G.: Synopticon (1880).
RYLE, BISHOP J. C.: Exposition of the Gospel of St. Luke (1856, etc.).
SALMON, DR. G.: Introduction to the New Testament, 5th ed. (1891).
The Human Element in the Gospels (1907).
SANDAY, PROFESSOR: Outlines of the Life of Christ, 2nd ed. (1906).
The Oracles of God (1891).
The Life of Christ in Recent Research (1907).
SCRIVENER, F. H. A.: Plain Introduction to Textual Criticism of the New Testament, 4th ed. (1894).
SEELEY, SIR J. R.: Ecce Homo (ed. of 1907).
SIMCOX, W. H.: The Language of the New Testament (1887).
SMITH, PROFESSOR D.: The Days of His Flesh (190.5).
SOUTER, DR. A.: Art. "Luke" in Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (1908).
SPENCE, DEAN: Expositor's Bible: Gospel of Luke (1889).
SPURGEON, C. H.: Sermons on the Parables.
STALKER, PROFESSOR: Christology of Jesus (1897).
The Ethic of Jesus (1907).
STANTON, PROFESSOR: The Gospels as Historical Documents, part ii. (1909).
STOCK, DR. E. Talks on St. Luke's Gospel (1907).
STUART, C. E. From Advent to Advent: Outline of the Gospel of Luke (1891).
SWETE, PROFESSOR: Studies in the Teaching of Our Lord, 2nd ed. (1904).
THIRLWALL, BISHOP Introduction to Schleiermacher's Essay on Luke (1875).
TURNER, C. H.: Art. "New Testament Text" in Murray's Illustrated Bible Dictionary.
TURTON, COLONEL: The Truth of Christianity, 6th ed. (1907).
VAUGHAN, DEAN: Authorised or Revised? (1882).
WESTCOTT, BISHOP: Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, 4th ed. (1872)
(now in 8th ed.).
Some Lessons of the Revised Version (1897).
The Historic Faith, 1883 (now in cheap reprint).
WEYMOUTH, R. F.: The New Testament in Modern Speech, 3rd ed. (1910).
WHITE, DR. N. J. D.: Art. "Gospels" in Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (1908).
WHYTE, PRINCIPAL: Bible Characters (1900).
WILSON, CANON J. M.: Studies in the Origins and Aims of the Four Gospels (1910).
WRIGHT, DR. A. The Gospel according to St. Luke in Greek (1900).
Art. "Luke, Gospel according to," in Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (1908).
BACON, PROFESSOR: Introduction to the New Testament (1900).
BIBLE, THE HOLY: Revised Standard Edition (1901).
BRIGGS, PROFESSOR: New Light on the Life of Jesus (1904).
BURTON, PROFESSOR: Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek (1898).
EMERSON, R. W.: The Conduct of Life and other Essays (1886).
FOSTER, PROFESSOR: The Finality of Christianity (1906).
GILBERT, PROFESSOR: The Student's Life of Jesus (1898).
JAMES, W.: The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902).
KENRICK, ARCHBISHOP: The Four Gospels, with Notes (1849).
McGIFFERT, PROFESSOR: History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1891).
McPHEETERS, PROFESSOR: Art. "Authority" in Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (1908).
NASH, PROFESSOR: History of the Higher Criticism of the New Testament (1900).
PRATT, PROFESSOR: Psychology of Religious Belief (1907).
RHEES, PROFESSOR RUSH: The Life of Jesus of Nazareth (1900).
SCHMIDT, PROFESSOR: The Prophet of Nazareth (1905).
STEVENS, G. B.: The Teaching of Jesus (1901).
BLABS, DR. F.: Philology of the Gospels (E . T., 1898).
Grammar of New Testament, Greek (E. T., 1898).
Papers in Expository Times, 1907.
CLEMEN, PROFESSOR: The Origin of the New Testament (1906).
DALMAN, PROFESSOR: The Words of Jesus (1902).
Artt. on "Gehenna" and "Hades" in Hauck's Encyclopaedia vols. vi., vii. respectively.
DEISSMANN, PROFESSOR: New Light on the New Testament (E. T., 1907).
DORNER, DR. J. A.: System of Christian Doctrine (1880-1882).
EWALD, PROFESSOR P.: Art. "Luke" in Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia, vol. vii. (1910).
GOEBEL, PROFESSOR: The Parables of Jesus methodically Expounded (E. T., 1883).
HAHN, PROFESSOR: Commentary on Luke's Gospel (1892).
HARNACK, PROFESSOR: The Mission and Expansion of Christianity (E. T., 1904, 1908).
Luke the Physician (E. T., 1907).
The Sayings and Discourses of Jesus (E. T., 1908).
The Acts of the Apostles (1908).
HOLTZMANN, DR. H. J.: Introduction to the New Testament, 3rd ed, (1892).
Manual Commentary on the New Testament (1889).
HOLTZMANN, PROFESSOR O.: The Life of Jesus (E. T., 1904).
JüLICHER, PROFESSOR: Introduction to the New Testament (E. T., 1904).
The Similitudes of Jesus (1888, 1899).
LOBSTEIN, P.: The Virgin Birth (E. T., 1903).
LüTGERT, PROFESSOR: The Kingdom of Heaven according to the Synoptic Gospels (1895).
MAYER-BOEHMER: The Gospel of Luke (1909).
MEYER-WEISS: Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospels of Mark and Luke, 6th ed. (1901).
MüLLER, DR. J.: The Christian Doctrine of Sin (E. T., 1868).
NEUMANN, DR. A.: Jesus (E. T., 1908).
NIETZSCHE, F.: Thus Spake Zarathustra, 2nd ed. (1906).
The Antichrist (E. T. of Works, 1896).
PFLEIDERER, DR. O.: Primitive Christianity (E. T., 1906).
PREUSCHEN, DR. E.: Lexicon to the New Testament Writings, etc. (1910).
RITSCHL, ALB.; The Christian Doctrine of Reconciliation and Justification (E. T., 1900).
Instruction in the Christian Religion (E. T., 1901).
*SCHANZ, PROFESSOR: Commentary on St. Luke's Gospel (1893).
SCHLEIERMACHER, F.: Essay on the Gospel of Luke (1817).
SCHWEITZER, A.: The Quest of the Historical Jesus (trans. by Montgomery, 2nd English ed.) (1911).
SEEBERG, PROFESSOR R.: Fundamental Truths of the Christian Religion (E. T., 1908).
SODEN, PROFESSOR BARON H. VON: History of Early Christian Literature (1903).
SOLTAU, DR. W.: The Birth of Jesus Christ (E. T., 1903).
WEISS, PROFESSOR B.: Life of Christ (E. T., 1883, 1884).
Introduction to the New Testament (E. T., 1885).
The Gospels, Greek Text with Short Exposition (cited as "Manual Commentary") (1902): American adaptation (1906).
Sources of Luke's Gospel (1907).
Sources of Synoptic Tradition (in series of "Texts and Investigations," edited by Harnack and Schmidt (1908).
WEISS, PROFESSOR J.: The Writings of the New Testament. The Gospels. (1908).
WELLHAUSEN. PROFESSOR: Introduction to the First Three Gospels (1905).
The Gospel of Luke Translated and Explained (1904).
WENDT, PROFESSOR: The Teaching of Jesus (E. T., 1902).
ZAHN, PROFESSOR: Introduction to the New Testament (E. T., 1909).
*LOISY, PROFESSOR A. ("Modernist"): Gospel Studies (1902).
The Synoptic Gospels (1907).
‡REINACH, S.: Orpheus: General History of Religions, 2nd ed. (1909).
SABATIER, L. A.: Outlines of the Philosophy of Religion (1897).
Religions of Authority and Religion of the Spirit (E. T., 1904).
GODET, DR. F.: Commentary on Gospel of Luke (3rd French ed., 1888 ; E. T., of 1st ed., 1865).
Art. "Parables" in Herzog's Encyclopaedia.
SCHMIEDEL, PROFESSOR: Art. "Gospels" in Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Jesus in Modern Criticism (E. T., 1907).
WERNLE, PROFESSOR: The Synoptic Question (1899).
The Beginnings of Christianity (E. T., 1903).
*SCHOUPPE, F. X.: Abridged Course of Religious Instruction (E. T., 1880)
TOLSTOI, COUNT L.: The Teaching of Jesus (E. T., 1909).
And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:
And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?
He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,
Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
And they remembered his words,
And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.
It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.
And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.
And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.
And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.
Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.
And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.
And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
And he took it, and did eat before them.
And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
And ye are witnesses of these things.
And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.