ICC New Testament Commentary
Then he called his twelve disciples together, and gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure diseases.9:1-50. To the Departure for Jerusalem
This is the last of the four sections into which the Ministry in Galilee (4:14-9:50) was divided. It contains the Mission of the Twelve (1-9), the Feeding of the Five Thousand (10-17), the ransfiguration (28-36), the Healing of the Demoniac Boy (37-43), and two Predictions of the Passion (18-27, 43-50).
1-9. The Mission of the Twelve and the Fears of Herod. Matthew 10:1-15; Mark 6:7-11. Mt. is the most full. Lk. gives no note of time or of connexion, and we may suppose that his sources gave him no information. See Weiss, L. J. ii. p. 119, Eng. tr. 2. p. 306. For mention of “the Twelve” see 6:13, 8:1, 9:12, 18:31, 22:3, 47. All three mention this summons or invitation on the part of Jesus. Mt. and Mk. describe it by their usual προσκαλεῖσθαι, for which Lk. has συνκαλεῖσθαι, which he more commonly uses in his Gospel (9:1, 15:6, 9, 23:13), while in the Acts he generally uses προσκαλεῖσθαι (2:39, 5:40, 6:2, 13:2, etc.).
1. δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν. Mt. and Mk. have ἐξουσίαν only (see on 4:36): δύναμις is the power, ἐξουσία the authority to use it. The Jewish exorcists had neither δύναμις nor ἐξουσία, and made elaborate and painful efforts, which commonly failed. Elsewhere, when the two are combined, ἐξουσία precedes δύναμις (4:36; 1 Corinthians 15:24; Ephesians 1:21; 1 Peter 3:22). The πάντα with δαιμόνια is peculiar to Lk. It covers all that would come under the head of possession.
The constr. is not really doubtful: νόσους θεραπεύειν depends on δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν, and is co-ordinate with ἐπὶ πάντα δαιμόνια. Others make ν. θερ. depend on ἔδωκεν and be co-ordinate with δύν. κ. ἐξ. The least satisfactory way is to couple νόσους with δαιμόνια, and make θεραπεύειν refer to both”: “authority over all diseases and demons, to heal them.” For this meaning Lk. would almost certainly have written τοῦ θεραπεύειν. He as usual mentions the curing of demoniacs separately from other healings (4:40, 41, 6:17, 18, 7:21, 8:2, 13:32).
2. After ἰᾶσθαι. C etc. ins. τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας from Mt.; A D L Z ins. τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς: om. B, Syr-Cur. Syr-Sin.
2. κηρύσσειν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἰᾶσθαι. These two verbs sum up the ministration to men’s souls and bodies. See on 5:17. Mt. adds that they were to raise the dead (10:8). Mk. tells us that they were sent out δύο, δύο. For ἀποστέλλω see on 4:18, p. 121.
3. μήτε ῥάβδον. Mk. has εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον (6:8); and the attempts to explain away this discrepancy in a small matter of detail are not very happy. As between Mt. and Mk. it is possible to explain that both mean “Do not procure (κτήσεσθε) a staff for the journey, but take (αἴρωσιν) the one which you have.” But both Mk. and Lk. use αἴρειν, and the one has “Take nothing except a staff,” while the other has “Take nothing, neither a staff,” etc. Yet in all three the meaning is substantially the same: “Make no special preparations; go as you are.” From 22:35 we learn that the directions were obeyed, and with good results. Lk. says nothing about sandals, respecting which there is another discrepancy between Mt. and Mk., unless we are to suppose that ὑποδήματα are different from σανδάλια. D. C. G. art. “Staff.”
μήτε ἀργύριον. Mk. has χαλκόν and Mt. has both, μηδὲ ἄργυρον μηδὲ χαλκόν. Thus Lk. is Greek, and Mk. is Roman, in choice of words. In LXX ἀργύριον is very common, ἄργυρος comparatively rare, while χαλκός is common as a metal, but not in the sense of money.
μήτε δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν. As no πήρα was allowed, the second tunic, if taken, would have to be worn. Hence the form in Mk., “Put not on two tunics.” Comp. Jos. Ant. xvii. 5. 7.
In ἔχειν we have an anacoluthon; change from direct to oblique oration. For it is scarcely admissible to take ἔχειν as infin. for imperat. The actmal imperat. both precedes (αἴρετε) and follows (μένετε). Win. 43:5. d, p. 397. Mk. here is strangely abrupt in his mixture of constructions.
4. ἐκεῖ μένετε καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε. Vulg. has et inde ne exeatis. But only, one cursive has μή (38). Cod. Brix. has donec exeatis fr. Mt. The meaning is “Go not from house to house,” as He charges the Seventy in 10:7, a passage which should be compared with this. The mission both of the Twelve and of the Seventy was to be simple and quiet, working from fixed centres in each place. This is the germ of what we find in the apostolic age,—“the church that is in their house” (Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19; Colossians 4:15; Philemon 1:2).
5. For δέχωνται see on 8:13, and for ἐξερχόμενοι ἀπό see on 4:35. In Acts 13:51 we find Paul and Barnabas performing this symbolical action of shaking off the dust. It signified that henceforth they had not the smallest thing in common with the place. It is said that Pharisees performed this action when re-entering Judæa from heathen lands. There and in Acts 18:6 Lk. uses ἐκτινάσς., which Mt. and Mk. have here. For ἀποτινασς. comp. Acts 28:5. The ἐπʼ αὐτούς means lit. “upon them,” and so against them.” Comp. 2 Corinthians 1:23 and Acts 13:51, and contrast 2 Thessalonians 1:10. Mk. here has αὐτοῖς.
6. εὐαγγελιζόμενοι καὶ θεραπεύοντες. Comp, ver. 2. Union of care for men’s bodies with care for their souls is characteristic of Christ and of Christian missions. The miraculous cures of the apostolic age have given place to the propagation of medical and sanitary knowledge, which is pursued most earnestly under Christian influences. For διήρχοντο see on 2:15, and for εὐαγγελιζόμενοι see on 2:10. Excepting Mark 1:28, Mark 1:16:20, 1 Corinthians 4:17 πανταχοῦ occurs only here and three or four times in Acts: here it goes with both participles.
7-9. The Fears of Herod. Mt. places this section much later (14:1-13); but Mk. (6:14-16) agrees with Lk. in connecting it with the mission of the Twelve. It was their going in all directions up and down the villages (διήρχοντο κατὰ τὰς κώμας) that caused the fame of Christ’s work to reach Herod φανερὸν γὰρ ἐγένετε τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (Mark 6:14), or, at anyrate, excite his fears.
7. Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετράρχης. So also Mt. But Mk. gives him his courtesy title of βασιλεύς. See on 3:1, p. 83. The τὰ γινόμενα πάντα means “all that was being done” by Jesus and His disciples. There is no πάντα in Mt. or Mk., either here or in the parallels to ver. 1. See on 8:45. The thoroughly classical word διηπόρει does not occur in LXX, nor in N.T. excepting in Lk. (Acts 2:12, Acts 5:24, Acts 10:17). Antipas was “utterly at a loss” as to what he was to think of Jesus. Note the change of tense: he heard once for all; he remained utterly at a loss. He had no doubt heard of Christ before. It was the startling theories about Him which perplexed Herod. D. C. G. i. p. 721; ii. p. 717.
Ἰωάνης ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν. This is strong evidence of the effect of John’s teaching. During his life he “did no sign,” and yet they think it possible that so great a Prophet has risen from the dead and is working miracles. Comp. Matthew 16:14; Mark 8:28. For ἐκ νεκρῶν comp. 20:35. For ἠγέρθη (א B C L Ξ 169) most MSS. have ἐγήγερται, which is not to be accepted because ἠγέρθη is found in Mt.
8. Ἠλείας ἐφάνη. The verb is changed from ἡγέρθη, because Elijah had not died. Mt. represents Antipas as saying that Jesus is the risen Baptist, and omits the suggestions about Elijah and other Prophets. The account of Lk, is intrinsically more exact. He would obtain good information at Cæsarea from Herod’s steward (8:3), and at Antioch from Herod’s foster-brother (Acts 13:1).
προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων. We know from John 7:40, John 7:41 that some Jews distinguished the great Prophet of Deuteronomy 18:15 from the Messiah. Comp. John 1:21. And Matthew 16:14 seems to show that there was an expectation that Jeremiah or other Prophets would return at some future crisis. The τῶν ἀρχαίων is peculiar to Lk. (comp. ver. 19). It may be opposed either to it new Prophet (7:16), or to the later Prophets as compared with Moses and Samuel. The former is more probable.
9. Ἰωάνην ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα. “As for John, I beheaded him.” Mt. and Mark represent Herod as saying of Christ, “This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead”: and some interpret this remark as meaning much the same: “Seeing that I put him to death, he may have risen again.” But this is very unnatural. Rather, “I thought that I had got rid of this kind of trouble when I beheaded John; and here I am having it all over again.” Perhaps, as Bede suggests, Antipas afterwards came to the conclusion that the Baptist had risen from the dead, a view which to his guilty conscience was specially unwelcome. Lk. mentions the imprisonment of the Baptist by anticipation (3:20); but, excepting in this remark of Antipas, he does not record his death.
τοιαῦτα. This may refer either to the works of Christ or to the speculations of the multitude respecting Him. Although John had wrought no miracles during his ministry (John 10:41), yet, if he had risen from the dead, such things might be expected of him (Matthew 14:2).
The ἐγώ of TR. before ἀκούω is of very doubtful authority (A D C Γ etc.): Treg. brackets, Tisch. WH. RV. omit. It would have no point.
ἐζήτει ἰδεῖν αὐτόν. Not merely “he desired” (AV.), but “he continued seeking to see Him.” He made various attempts to apply a test which would have settled the question. Herod knew the Baptist; and he could soon determine whether this was John or not, if only he could see Him. Comp. 23:8, where the gratification of this desire is recorded. No doubt it was not merely the wish to settle the question of identity which led Antipas to try to see Jesus. That he was a Sadducee is a guess of Scholten.
10-17. The Feeding of the Five Thousand. This is the one miracle which is recorded by all four Evangelists (Matthew 14:13; Mark 6:30; John 6:1). In all four it is the climax of the ministry. Henceforward attention is directed more and more to the death which will bring Christ’s work to a close. From S. John we learn that it took place shortly before the Passover. All four accounts should be compared. Each contributes some special features, and each appears to be to a large extent independent. The marks of Lk.’s style are abundant in his narrative.
10. ὑποστρέφαντες . See small print on 1:56. Lk. connects the miracle with the return of the Twelve; but he gives no hint as to the time of their absence. We may perhaps allow a few weeks. He does not often call the Twelve οἱ ἀπόστολοι (6:13, 17:5, 22:14, 24:10).
διηγήσαντο αὐτῷ ὅσα ἐποίησαν. What this was has already been recorded in brief (ver. 6). It is strange that anyone should infer from Lk.’s not expressly mentioning, as Mk. does (6:12, 13), the casting out of demons, “that Lk. wishes us to believe that they had failed in this respect,” and “had evidently been able to out only a part of their commission.” Lk. records the success of the Seventy in exorcizing demons (10:17): why should he wish to insinuate that the Twelve had failed? Excepting Mark 5:16, Mark 5:9:9; Hebrews 11:32, διηγεῖσθαι occurs only in Lk. (8:39; Acts 8:33, Acts 9:27, Acts 12:17). Comp. ver. 49. Lk. perhaps wishes us to understand that it was the report which the Apostles brought of their doings that led to Christ’s taking them apart, as Mk. says, for rest. Mt states that it was the news of the Baptist’s death which led to the withdrawal. Jn. has only a vague μετὰ ταῦτα. All may be correct; but there can have been no borrowing.
παραλαβὼν αὐτούς. Comp. ver. 28, 18:31.
ὑπεχώρησεν κατʼ ἰδίαν. The verb occurs only here and 5:16 In NT. Comp. Ecclus. 13:9 (12). Lk. does not seem to be aware that Christ and His disciples went by boat across the lake (Mt. Mk. Jn.), while the multitude went round by land. Hence it is possible that he supposed that the miracle took place near Bethsaida on the west shore, and not at Bethsaida Julias on the near the north-east end of the lake. See D. B.2 art “Bethsaida.” Mt. Mk. and Lk. all have κατʼ ἰδίαν.
The common reading, εἰς τόπον ἔρημον πόλεως καλουμένης Βηθσαιδά (A D A G H K M S U V etc., Aeth. Arm. Goth.), seems to be an ingenious conflation of the original text, εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαιδά (B L X Ξ 33, Boh. Sah.),—which is supported by D [only κώμην for πόλιν],—with a correction of it, εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (א*), or εἰς τόπον ἔρημον Βηθσαιδά (b c ff2 l g Vulg. Syr.), or εἰς τόπον ἔρημον καλούμενον Βηθσαιδα (a e f). These corrections would be suggested by ver. 12 and Mt. and Mk. and the difficulty of associating the miracle with a πόλις. See WH. ii. Intr. p. 102, and also Wordsw. Vulg. in loco. For ther apparent instances of conflation see 11:54, 12:18, 24:53. Note Lk.’s favourite καλουμένην.
11. οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι γνότες ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ. The Baptist was dead and the Twelve had returned to Jesus, so that there was no longer any counter-attraction. No Evangelist tells us how long Jesus and the disciples enjoyed their privacy before the multitudes arrived.
ἀποδεξάμενος αὐτούς. “He gave them a welcome,” as they had Him (see on 8:40), although their arrival destroyed the retirement which He had sought. As Jn. states, it was His miracles of healing which attracted them rather than His teaching. For ἀποδεξάμενος (א B D L X Ξ 1 33 69) A C etc. have δεξάμενος: the compound is peculiar to Lk. It corresponds to ἐσπλαγχνίσθη in Mt. and Mk.
ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς περὶ τῆς βας. τ. Θ., κ.τ.λ.. “He continued speaking to them about the kingdom of God; and those who had need of cure He healed.” See on 5:17 and 9:6. Neither Mt. nor Jn. say anything about His teaching the multitudes, or about His healing any of them.
12. ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίειν. Comp. Jeremiah 6:4 ; Jdg 19:11, Jdg 19:9:3; 1 Samuel 4:2. In N.T. Lk. alone uses κλίνειν intransitively (24:29). Comp. ἐκκλίνετε ἀπʼ αὐτῶν (Romans 16:17). In Att. Grk. κλίνειν is generally trans., ἀποκλίνειν intrans. Win. 38:1, p. 315.
προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δώδεκα. In the three it is the Twelve who take the initiative; in Jn. it is the Lord who does so.
εἰς τὰς κύκλῳ κώμας καὶ ἀγρούς. Being similar in meaning, the nouns have only one article, although they differ in gender: comp. 1:6 and 14:23, and contrast 10:21 and 14:26. See on 1:6.
ἐπισιτισμόν. Here only in N. T., but quite class. It is specially used of provisions for a journey: Genesis 42:25, 45:21; Joshua 9:5, Joshua 9:11; Judith 2:18, 4:5; Xen. Anab. i. 5, 9, vii. 1, 9.
13. Both εἶπεν δέ and πρός are in Lk.’s style, and neither occurs in the parallels. The same is true of πάντα, and in ver. 14 of πρός and the second ὡσεί. Note the emphatic ὑμεῖς. “Ye are to find food for them, not they.” There is no need to supply anything after εἰ μήτι ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν. “We have no more five loaves,” leads quite naturally to “unless we are to go and buy,” etc.; and then the sentence is complete. The statement expresses perplexity (Weiss), not sarcasm (Schanz).
Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον ἢ πέντε. The πλεῖον ἢπέντε is virtually plur. and has plur. verb. For the subjunct, after εἰ μή comp. 1 Corinthians 14:5, and see Win. xli. 2. b, p. 368, and Burton., § 252, 253. The subjunct. after εἰ is not rare in late Grk. But this is rather a delib. subjunct.
Jn. tells us that it was Andrew who pointed out the lad with the loaves, and that they were of barley-bread. On the whole, narrative is the most precise. The ἡμεῖς, like the preceding ὑμεῖς, is emphatic.
14. ὡσεὶ ἄνδρες πεντακισχίλιοι. They were roughly counted as about a hundred companies with about fifty men in each. Note the ἄνδρες: not ἄνθρωποι. The women and children, as Mt. tells us, were not included in the reckoning. They would be much less numerous than the men. Lk. says nothing about the grass, which all the others mention, and which made the companies in their Oriental costumes look like flower-beds (πρασιαί), as Mk. indicates.
Κατακλίνατε αὐτοὺς κλισίας. The verb is peculiar to Lk. in N.T. (7:36, 14:8, 24:30); in LXX Numbers 24:9; Exodus 21:18; Jdg 5:27; Judith 12:15. The κλισίας is cogn. acc. It occurs 3 Mac. 6:31 and here only in bibl. Grk. Comp. Jos. Ant. xii. 2, 11; Plut. Sertor. xxvi.
ὡσεὶ ἀνὰ πεντήκοντα. In the spaces between the groups the Apostles would be able to move freely and distribute the food. That the arrangement (50, 5000) has any relation to the five loaves is not likely. The ἀνά is distributive: comp. 10:1 ; Matthew 20:9; John 2:6; Revelation 4:8.
16. Here Mt. Mk. and Lk. are almost verbatim the same. All three mention the taking the loaves and fishes, the looking up to heaven, the blessing, and the breaking, and the giving to the disciples. For εὐλόγησεν Jn. has εὐχαριστήσας. This blessing or thanksgiving is the usual grace before meat said by the host or the head of the house. The Talmud says that “he who enjoys aught without thanksgiving is as though he robbed God.” We are probably to understand that this blessing is the means of the miracle. Comp. John 6:23; and of feeding the four thousand (Matthew 15:36; Mark 8:6); and of the eucharist (Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:17, Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24). The manner of the miracle cannot be discerned: it is a literal fulfilment of Matthew 6:33. Lk. alone mentions that Jesus blessed the loaves, εὐλόγησεν αὐτούς. The preceding articles, τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας, mean those which had been mentioned before in ver. 13, where the words have no article.
ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς. “Continued giving them to the disciples.” The imperf. in the midst of aorists is graphic. Comp. 24:30; Mark 8:6, and contrast 22:19; Mark 14:22.
17. The verbal resemblance between the three accounts continues. For ἐχορτάσθησαν see on 6:21, and take κλασμάτων after τὸ περισσεῦσαν (De W. Hahn). All four mention the twelve κόφινοι, as also does Mt. in referring to this miracle (16:9); whereas at the feeding of the four thousand (Matthew 15:37; Mark 8:8), and in referring to it (Matthew 16:10), the word used for basket is σπυρίς. It is the more remarkable that Lk. and Jn. both have κόφινοι because they do not mention the other miracle. The σπυρίς was large, capable of holding a man (Acts 9:25). The κόφινος was the wallet carried by every travelling Jew, to avoid buying food from Gentiles: Judæis quorum cophinus fænumque supellex (Juv. Sat. iii. 14). Comp. nupsisti, Gellia, cistifero, “thou hast married a Jew” (Mart. Epig. v. 17, 4). These exact details would scarcely have been maintained so consistently in a deliberate fiction or in a myth. Still less would either fiction or myth have represented one who could multiply food at will as giving directions that the fragments should not be wasted (John 6:12). The possessor of an inexhaustible purse is never represented as being watchful against extravagance.
Note the climax in ver. 17. They not only ate, but were satisfied,—all of them; and not only so, but there was something over,—far more than the original supply.
Weiss well remarks that “the criticism which is afraid of miracles finds itself in no small difficulty in the presence of this narrative. It is guaranteed by all our sources which rest upon eye-witness; and these show the independence of their tradition by their deviations, which do not affect the kernel of the matter, and cannot be explained by any tendencies whatever. In the presence of this fact the possibility of myth or invention is utterly inadmissible. … Only this remains absolutely incontrovertible, that it is the intention of all our reports to narrate a miracle; and by this we must abide, if the origin of the tradition is not to abide an entirely inexplicable riddle” (L. J. 2. pp. 196-200, Eng. tr. 2. pp. 381-385). The explanation that Christ’s generosity in giving away the food of His party induced others who had food to give it away, and that thus there was enough for all, is plainly not what the Evangelists mean, and it does not explain their statements. Would such generosity suggest that He was the Messiah, or induce them to try to make Him king? Still more inadequate is the suggestion of Renan: Grace à une extrême frugalité, la troupe sainte y vécut; on crut naturellement voir en cela un miracle (V. de. J. p. 198, ed. 1863).
18-22. The Confession of Peter and First Announcement of the Passion. Matthew 16:13-21; Mark 8:27-31. No connexion with the miracle just related is either stated or implied. Lk. omits the sequel of the miracle, the peremptory dismissal of the disciples and gradual dismissal of the people, the storm, the walking on the sea, the discourse on the Bread of Life, the Syrophenician woman, the Ephphatha miracle, the feeding of the four thousand, the forgetting to take bread, and the healing of a blind man at Bethsaida Julias (Mat_14:22-12; Mar_6:45-26; John 6:14-71). Can he then have seen either Mt. or Mk.? So also here: both the others mention that the incident took place near Cæsarea Philippi, on the confines of heathenism. Lk. mentions no place. It is a desperate expedient to suppose with Reuss, that the copy of Mk. which Lk. knew chanced to omit these sections. From ver. 18 to ver. 50 Lk. is once more parallel in the main to be other two.
18. καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν προσευχόμενον. See note at end of ch. 1. and on 3:21. For the periphrastic infinitive comp. 11:1, and Burton., § 97. Jesus Patrem rogarat, ut discipulis se revelaret. Nam argumentum precum Jesu colligi potest ex seramous actionibusque insecutis; 6:12, 13 (Beng.).
κατὰ μόνας. Perhaps χώρας was originally understood. But the expression is used as a simple adv. and is sometimes written as one word, καταμόνας. In N.T. only here and Mark 4:10. In LXX Ps. 4:9, 32:15; Jeremiah 15:17; Lamentations 3:28.
συνῆσαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταί. This almost amounts to a contradiction of what precedes. “When He was alone praying, His disciples were with Him.” “Alone” no doubt means “in private,” or “in a solitary spot,” and may be taken with σύῆσαν: so that the contradiction is only on the surface. Moreover we are perhaps to understand that His prayer was solitary: His disciples did not join in it. In either case κατὰ μόνας is quite intelligible, although the disciples may have been close to Him. But it is possible that the true reading is συνήντησσν, meaning, “His disciples met Him, fell in with Him,” as He was engaged in prayer. This is the reading of B*, which a later scribe has corrected to συνῆσαν. And B* is here supported by the Old Latin f (occurrerunt) and one excellent cursive (157), besides two less important authorities. Nevertheless, it is on the whole more probable that συνήντησαν is an early attempt to get rid of the apparent contradiction involved in κατὰ μόνας συνησσαν. See Expositor, 3rd series, iv. p. 159. Elsewhere in N.T. συνεῖναι occurs only Acts 22:11.
20. Ψ̔μεῖς δέ. With great emphasis: “But ye—who do ye say that I am?” The impulsiveness of Peter, and his position as spokesman for the Twelve, are here conspicuous. He is στόμα τοῦ χοροῦ: 8:45, 12:41, 18:28. Licet cæteri apostoli sciant, Petrus tamen respondit præ cæteris (Bede).
τὸν χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ. “Whom God bath anointed” and sent: sent on 2:26. Here Mk. has simply ὁ Χριστός, and Mt. ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος. See Kelm on this confession, as “a solemn event of the very highest character” (Jes. of Nas. iv. p. 263). Lk. and Mk. omit the praise bestowed on Peter for this confession, and the much discussed promise made to him (Matthew 16:17-19).
21. μηδενὶ λέγειν τοῦτο. Because of the grossly erroneous views about the Messiah which prevailed among the people. Shortly before this they had wished to take Him by force and make Him king (John 6:15). Hence Jesus never proclaimed Himself openly to the multitude as the Messiah; and here, when He does to the Twelve, He explains the nature of His Kingdom, and strictly forbids them to make His Messiahship known. The nearest approach to exceptions to this practice are the Samaritan woman (John 4:26), and the outcast from the synagogue (John 9:37).
Others explain the command to keep silence as prompted by the fear lest the guilt of those who were about to put Jesus to death should be increased by the disciples proclaiming Him as the Messiah. Others again suggest the fear lest the people, if they knew that He was the Messiah, should attempt to rescue Him from the death which it was necessary that He should undergo. Neither of these appears to be satisfactory. In any case the δέ is adversative. What Peter said was quite true: “but He charged them, and commanded.”
22. Lk. does not tell us, as Mk. does, and still more plainly Mt., that this was the beginning of Christ’s predictions respecting His Passion: ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς ὅτι Δεῖ, κ.τ.λ. (Mark 8:31); ἀπὸ τότε ἤρξατο δεικνύειν, κ.τ.λ. (Matthew 16:21). The first announcement of such things must have seemed overwhelming. Peter’s protest perhaps expressed the feeling of most of them.
εἰπὼν ὅτι Δεῖ. The ὅτι is recitative, not argumentative. The Δεῖ is here in all three; but elsewhere Lk. uses it much more often than any other Evangelist. It expresses logical necessity rather than moral obligation (ὤφειλεν, Hebrews 2:17) or natural fitness (ἔπρεπενχ, Hebrews 2:10). It is a Divine decree, a law of the Divine nature, that the Son of Man must suffer. Prophecy had repeatedly intimated this decree. Comp. 13:33, 17:25, 22:37, 24:7, 26, 44; John 3:14, etc. For τὸν ὐ̔ὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, the title which suggested, while it veiled, His Messiahship, see on 5:24.
ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν, κ.τ.λ. “Be rejected after investigation at the hands of the,” etc. The δοκιμασία was the scrutiny which an elected magistrate had to undergo at Athens, to see whether he was legally qualified to hold office. The hierarchy held such a scrutiny respecting the claims of Jesus to be the Christ, and rejected Him: 17:25, 20:17; 1 Peter 2:4, 1 Peter 2:7. For the ἀπό, “at the hands of,” comp. Ecclus. 20:20; Luke 7:35; Acts 2:22; Jam 1:13; Revelation 12:6.
τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ ἀρχιερέων καὶ γραμματέων. The three nouns, as forming one body, have one article. So also in 16:21. In Mark 14:43, Mark 14:53, where the Sanhedrin is spoken of with similar fulness, all three nouns have the article. The ἀρχιερεῖς are rarely placed second: comp. 20:19; Matthew 16:21; Mark 8:31. The common formulæ are ἀρχ., γραμ., πρεσβ. or ἀρχ., πρεσβ., γραμ. and ἀρχ. πρεσβ. or ἀρχ., γραμ.
ἀποκτανθῆναι. The pass. of ἀποκτείνω is late Grk. Classical writers use θνήσκω or ἀποθνήσκω. For τῇ τρίῃ ἡμέρᾳ Mk. has the less accurate μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας. He also has ἀναστῆναι, while Mt. has ἐγερθῆναι, which is probably right here; but ἀναστῆναι (A C D, Just. Orig.) is well supported.
Lk. omits Peter’s protest against the declaration that Christ must suffer, and the severe rebuke which he received. His omission of “Get thee behind Me, Satan,” is sufficient answer to those who assert that it is out of ill-will to Peter that Lk. omits “Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jonah.” See on 5:10 and 22:54-62.
23-27. The Self-Renouncement required in Christ’s Followers. Matthew 16:24-28; Mar_8:34-1. Although the manner of introducing the words is different in all three, the similarity between the reports of the words is very close throughout, especially in the words quoted vv. 23, 24. Throughout the Gospels it is in the records of Christ’s sayings that the closest resemblances are found. Comp. 18:16, 17, 25, 27.
23. πρὸς πάντας. Both words are characteristic: see on ver. 43 and 1:13. The πάντας represents Mk.’s τὸν ὄχλον σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς. The necessity of self-denial and self-sacrifice was made known to all, although for the present the supreme example of the necessity was a mystery revealed gradually to a very few.
ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθʼ ἡμέραν. This is the first mention of the cross in Lk. and Mk. Its associations were such that this declaration must have been startling. The Jews, especially in Galilee, knew well what the cross meant. Hundreds of the followers of Judas and Simon had been crucified (Jos. Ant. xvii. 10. 10). It represents, therefore, not so much a burden as an instrument of death, and it was mentioned because of its familiar associations. Comp. 14:27; Matthew 10:38. The καθʼ ἡμέραν here is peculiar to Lk.: comp. 1 Corinthians 15:31. We must distinguish between ἀκολουθείτω μοι, “follow Me loyally,” and ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεσθαι, “become My disciple.” There are three conditions of discipleship: self-denial, bearing one’s cross, and obedience.
24. ὃς γὰρ ἂν θέλῃ. Here, as in ver. 23, “will” (AV.) is too weak as a translation of θέλειν, being too like the simple future. “desireth” or “willeth” is better: si quis vult, qui enim voluerit. Such inadequate renderings of θενλειν are common in AV., (19:14; John 6:67, John 7:17, John 8:44), See small print on 10:22. Comp. 17:33.
25. τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος. The same verb is used by all three; but AV. obliterates this by rendering “profit” in Mt. and Mk., and “advantage” in Lk. Again, ζημιωθῆναι is common to all three: yet AV. has “lose” in Mt. and Mk., and “cast away” in Lk. The opposition between κέρδος and ζημία is common in Grk. See Lft. on Php 3:7. In N.T. the act. ζημιόω does not occur, but only the pass. with either acc. of the thing confiscated (Php 3:8), or dat. with ἐν (2 Corinthians 7:9), or absol. (1 Corinthians 3:15). The ἑαυτόν is equivalent to τὴν ψυχήν in ver. 24 and in Mt. and Mk. To be excluded from eternal life is death. Lk. omits “What should a man give in exchange for his life?” We must keep “life” for ψυχή throughout the passage: the context shows when it means life as men desire it on earth, and when life as the blessed enjoy it in the Kingdom. The Gospel has raised the meaning of ψυχή, as of ζωή, to a higher power. Comp. Revelation 12:11. Frumentum; si servas perdis, si seminas renovas (Bede)
For the combination of aor. part. with fut. indic. comp. 3 John 1:6, and Burton., § 141.
26. ἐπαισχύθῇ με καὶ τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους. Mt. omits. The ἐπί in comp. means “on account of”: this is the ground of his shame: comp. 13:26, 27. For the constr. comp. Romans 1:16; 2 Timothy 1:8, 2 Timothy 1:16; Hebrews 11:16. The ἐν τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ refers to the ταρουσία, not to the Resurrection (12:36, 17:24, 18:8, 19:15, 21:27), and is the first mention by Lk. of Christ’s promising to return in glory. Lk. omits “in this adulterous generation” (Mk.).
27. ἀληθῶς. With λέγεω, not with what follows. Mt. and Mk. have ἀμήν, which Lk. uses much less frequently than the others. In 12:44 and 21:3 Lk. has ἀληθῶς, others have ἀμήν. For αὐτοῦ, “here,” comp. Acts 18:19; Matthew 25:36. Mt. and Mk. have ὧδε.
γεύσωνται θανάτου. The expression is found in the Talmud, but not in O.T. Comp. Matthew 16:28; John 8:52; Hebrews 2:9. It implies experience of the bitterness of death. Comp. ἰδεῖν θάνατον (2:26) and θάνατον θεωρεῖν (John 8:51). For γεύεσθαι in the sense of “experience” comp. Hebrews 6:4, Hebrews 6:5; Psalm 34:9.
τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ. Mk. adds ἐληλυθυιῖαν ἐν δυνάμει, and Mt. substitutes τ. υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρ. ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ. The meaning is much disputed. The principal interpretations are:—1. The Transfiguration, which all three amounts closely connect with this prediction (most of the Fathers, Euthym. Theophyl. Maldon); 2. The Resurrection and Ascension (Cajetan, Calvin, Beza); 3. Pentecost and the great signs which followed it (Godet, Hahn); 4. The spread of Christianity (Nösgen); 5. The internal development of the Gospel (Erasmus, Klostermann); 6. The destruction of Jerusalem (Wetstein, Alford, Morison, Plumptre, Mansel); 7. The Second Advent (Meyer, Weiss, Holtzmann). No interpretation can be correct that does not explain εἰσίν τινες, which implies the exceptional privilege of some, as distinct from the common experience of all. This test seems to exclude all but the first and the sixth of these interpretations; and, if we must choose between these two, the sixth must be right. “Shall not taste of death until” cannot refer exclusively to an event to take place the next week.But both may be right. The Transfiguration, witnessed by only three of those present, was a foretaste of Christ’s glory both on earth and in heaven. The destruction of Jerusalem, witnessed by S. John and perhaps a few others of those present, swept away the remains of the Old Dispensation and left the Gospel in possession of the field. Only so far as the destruction of Jerusalem was a type of the end of the world is there reference to the παρουσία (see on 21:32). A direct reference to the παρουσσία is excluded by the fact that none of those present lived to witness it, except in the sense that all men will witness it. Jesus has told us that during His life on earth He was ignorant of the date of the day of judgment (Mark 13:32): and we cannot suppose that in spite of that ignorance He predicted that it was near; still less that He uttered a prediction which has not been fulfilled. Moreover, the οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου ἕως implies that the τωες will experience death after seeing the βας.τ.Θεοῦ, which would not be true of those who live to see the παρουσία (1 Corinthians 15:51).
28-36. The Transfiguration. Matthew 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13. Both Lk (vv. 31, 32) and Mt. (17:6, 7) give details which Mk. omits; but Mk. has very little (part of 9:3) which is not in either of the others.
Here again (see on 8:35-39, 40-48) the marks of Lk.’s diction are numerous: ἐγένετο, ὡσεί (ver. 28); ἐγένετο, ἐν τῷ with infin. (29); ἅνδρες (30); σύν, ἄνδρας (32); ἐγένετο, ἐν τῷ, εἶπεν πρός, ἐπιστάτα (33); ἐν τῷ (34); φωνὴ ἐγένετο (35); ἐν τῷ, καὶ αὐτοί, ἀπήγγειλαν, ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις, οὐδὲν ὦν (36).
For comment see Tert. Adv. Marcion. iv. 2; Trench, Studies in the Gospels, pp. 184-214; Herzog, Pro_1 art. Verk1ärung, omitted in 2nd ed.; Schaff’s Herzog, art. “Transfiguration.”
28. ὡσεὶ ἡμέραι ὀκτώ. A nom. without construction of any kind. Comp. Acts 5:7; Matthew 15:32; Mark 8:2, and πλεῖον in ver. 13. Win. lviii. 4, p. 648. The other two have “after six days which agrees with “about eight days.” We can hardly Lay that Lk. is “improving their chronology.” It looks as if he had not seen their expression. For παραλαβών comp. ver. 10; and for the order of the names see on 8:51. Note that Lk. changes the order of the names. He places John before James (8:51), which may be because he wrote after John had become the better known
εἰς τὸ ὄρος. The others have εἰς ὄρος ὑφηλόν. Both expressions would fit Hermon, which is about 9200 feet high, and would easily be reached in a week from Cæsarea Philippi. It is still called Jebel esh Sheikh, “the chief mountain.” It is higher than Lebanon (8500) or Anti-Lebanon (8700), and its isolated white summit is visible from many eminences throughout Palestine (Conder, Handbook of the Bible, p. 205; D.B.2 1. p. 1339; Tristram, Bible Places, p. 280). A tradition, which is first mentioned by Cyril of Jerusalem (Catech. xii. 16), places the scene of the Transfiguration on Tabor,1 which at this time seems to have had a village or town on the top, which Josephus fortified against Vespasian (B. J. iv. 1, 8). In that case the solitude (κατʼ ἰδίαν) which is required for the Transfiguration would be impossible. The προσεύξασθαι is peculiar to this account: see on 3:21, a similar occasion.
29. ἐγένετο … ἓτερον.The Gentile Lk. writing for Gentiles avoids the word μετεμορφώθη (Matthew 17:2; Mark 9:2), which might be understood of the metamorphosis of heathen deities. Comp ἐν ἑτέρᾳ μορφῇ ([Mk.] 16:12). The λευκός need not be made adverbial. The asyndeton is not violent, if it be made co-ordinate with ἐξαστράπτων, a word which occurs Ezekiel 1:4, Ezekiel 1:7; Nahum 3:3.
30. Both ἄνδρες and οἵτινες are peculiar to Lk. here: see 2:4. The three Apostles saw the forms of two men who were such as to be recognized as Moses and Elijah,—the representatives of the Law and the Prophets. The power to recognize them was granted with the power to see them; otherwise the sight would have been meaningless. In the same way S. Paul recognized Ananias in a vision, although he had not previously known him (Acts 9:12). We might render the οἵτινες “who were no others than.” That Moses was to reappear as well as Elijah at the beginning of the Messianic Kingdom, was a later dream of the Rabbis. See Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. ad loc. See small print on 2:22 for the form Μωυσῆς.
31, 32. Peculiar to Lk. See on 22:43.
τὴν ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ. His departure from this world by means of the Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension. Comp. the use of εἴσοδος in Acts 13:24. For ἔξοδος in the sense of death see 2 Peter 1:15; Wisd. 3:2, 7:6. That the Apostles heard this subject being discussed explains part of the meaning of the Transfiguration. It was to calm their minds, which had recently been disturbed by the prediction of Christ’s sufferings and deaths.2 The ἤμελλεν corresponds to δεῖ in ver. 22. It is all ordained by God, and is sure to take place; and when it takes place it may be regarded as a fulfilment (πληροῦν), and also as a filling, full. There were types and prophecies shadowing forth the Divne purpose, every detail of which must be gone through.
It is perhaps to be regretted that RV., retains “accomplish,” which is its freq. rendering of τελειόω (John 4:34, John 4:5:36; Acts 20:24; John 17:4, etc.), instead of substituting “fulfil,” which is its freq. rendering of πληρόω (21:24, 22:16, 24:44; Acts 1:16, etc.). And why not “exodus” here, and Hebrews 11:22, and 2 Peter 1:15, for ἔξοδος?
βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ. In N.T. only the pass. of this verb is found, and the best writers do not use the pres. of either voice. In Matthew 26:43 it is used of the eyes of these same three being heavy with sleep. comp. Luke 21:34; 2 Corinthians 1:8, 2 Corinthians 1:5:4; 1 Timothy 5:16.
διαγρηγορήσαντες δέ. “But having remained awake” in spite of this sleepiness would be the common meaning of the word;1 but perhaps here it means “having become thoroughly awake.” Syr-Sin. has “when they awoke.” It is a late word, and occurs nowhere else in N.T. or LXX. Lk. is fond of compounds with διά:—διαγινώσκειν, διαδέχεσθαι, διαλείπειν, διαλύειν, διανέμειν, διανυκτερεύειν, διαπονεῖσθαι, διαπορεῖν, διαπραγματεύεσθαι, etc.
As the invention of a later hand these two verses (31, 32) do not explain themselves. What is the motive for the invention? As a narrative of facts they throw much light on the whole situation.
33. ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ. “As they were pasting from Him.” This again is in Lk. only, and it explains Peter’s remark. His first impulse is to prevent Moses and Elijah from going away. He wishes to make present glory and rapture permanent.
εἷπεν ὁ Πέτρος. Mt. and Mk. add ἀποκριθείς. It is his response to what he saw. For Ἐπιοτάτα see on 5:5. He says that “it is good for us to be here,” not “it is better.” There is no comparison with any other condition. The ἡμᾶς probably means the Apostles, not all six persons. The Apostles are ready to help in erecting the σκηναί. If they were to remain there, they must have shelter.
μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει. We need not follow Tertullian in interpreting this of a state of ecstasy (amentia), as of one rapt into another world. Mk. tells us plainly why Peter “wist not what to answer,” ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο: and this he would have from Peter himself. In any case, neither Peter’s strange proposal nor the comment upon it looks like invention.
34. ἐγένετο νεφέλη καὶ ἐπεσκίαζεν αὐτούς. Mt. calls it φωτεινή, a “luminous cloud.” Here there is perhaps an association of ideas, suggested by similarity of sound, between ἐπεσκίαζεν and the Shechinah or δόξη mentioned in ver. 31. Comp. ἐπεσκίαζεν ἐπὶ τὴν σκηνὴν ἡ νεφέλη (Exodus 40:29). Strictly speaking a luminous cloud cannot overshadow; but it may veil. Light may be as blinding as darkness. We cannot be sure whether the αὐτούς includes the three Apostles or not. It does not include them in ver. 33, and probably does not include them here. The reading ἐκείνους εἰσελθεἰν (A D P R) is meant to exclude the Apostles; but εἰσελθεῖν αὐτούς (א B C L) is right. See D. B.2 art. “Cloud.”
35. For φωνὴ ἐγένετο see on 3:22, and comp. Exodus 33:9. The reading ἀγαπητός (A C D P R) for ἐκλελεγμένος (א B L X) comes from Mt. and Mk. The Versions are divided, and in many copies of the Aeth, the two readings are combined. Syr-Sin. has “the chosen.”
36. ἐν τῷ γενέσθαι τὴν φωνήν. “After the voice had come”, i.e. when it had ceased: see on 3:21. Syr-Sin. has “when there was the voice.” Peter had wished to make three tabernacles, as if Moses and Elijah were to be as abiding as Christ; but now the Law and the Prophets pass away, ita dimissis, quasi jam et officio et honore dispunctis (Tertul. Adv. Marcion. iv. 22), and εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς μόνος.
καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐσίγησαν καὶ οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν ἐν ἐκείναις τ̣αῖς ἡμέραις. See on 5:14, on 8:20, and on 1:39. Lk. tells us that they kept silent; Mt. tells us that Jesus charged them to tell no one until the Son of Man was risen from the dead. Mk. relates both the command and their observance of it. The prohibition to speak of what they had seen is a strong confirmation of the incident as an historical fact. If the vision is an invention, how can we explain the invention of such a prohibition? The statement of all three, that the Transfiguration took place a week after the preceding incident, the characteristic impulsiveness of Peter, and the healing of the demoniac boy immediately afterwards, are marks of historical reality. D. C. G. art. “Transfiguration.”
But as in the case of other miracles, while we admit the fact, we must remain in ignorance as to the manner. Were Moses and Elijah, who were mysteriously removed from the earth, here present in the body? Or were their disembodied spirits made visible? Or was it a mere vision, in which they only seemed to be present? We cannot say; the third alternative is not excluded by the fact that all three saw it, whereas a mere vision is perceived by only one. As Weiss well remarks, “We are not here concerned with a vision produced by natural causes, but with one sent directly by God”; and he adds, “Our narrative presents no stumbling-block for those who believe in divine revelation” (L.J. ii. pp. 319, 320, Eng. tr. 3. p. 103). The silence of S. John respecting he whole incident is thoroughly intelligible. (1) It had already been recorded three times; (2) the glorification of Jesus as the Son of God, which is here set forth in a special incident, is set forth by him throughout his whole Gospel.
ἑώρακαν. With this form of the 3rd pers. plur. perf. comp. τετηρηκαν and ἔγνωκαν (John 6:7), εἴρηκαν (Revelation 19:3), γέγοναν (Revelation 21:6), εἰσελήλυθαν (Jam 5:4); also Romans 16:7; Colossians 2:1; Revelation 18:3. Such forms are common in inscriptions and in the Byzantine writers. Win. xiii. 2. c, p. 90; Gregory, Prolegom. p. 124. In meaning the perfect seems here to be passing into the aorist; Burton., § 88, but see § 78.
37-43. The Healing of the Demoniac Boy. Matthew 17:14-18; Mark 9:14-29. In all three this incident is closely connected with the Transfiguration. The moral contrast between the peace and glory on the mount and the struggle and failure down below is intense, and is magnificently brought out by Raffaelle in the great picture of the Transfiguration, which was his last work. The combination of the two scenes is fatal to the unity of the subject, which is really two pictures in one frame; but it heightens the moral and dramatic effect. It is perhaps even more instructive to regard it as three pictures. Christ and the saints in glory; the chosen three blinded by the light; the remaining nine baffled by the powers of darkness.
The marks of Lk.’s style continue with considerable frequency: ἐγένετο, ὲξῆς (ver. 37); καὶ ἰδού, ἐβόησεν, δέομαι, μονογενής (38); καὶ ἰδού (39); ἐδεήθην (40); ἰάσατο (42); πάντες (43). None of these are in the parallel passages. See small print on 8:35-39, 40-48.
37. τῇ ἑξῇ ἡμέρᾳ. See on 7:11. The Transfiguration probably took place at night. Lk. alone tells us that the descent from the mountain did not take place until next day. Thus the three Apostles had time to think over what they had seen and heard, before receiving fresh experiences. Lk. omits the conversation about Elijah. Mk., who is here much more full than either Lk. or Mt., tells us that this ὄχλος πολύς was gathered round the other disciples, with whom scribes were disputing. The opportune arrival of Christ caused great amazement.
38. For ἐβόησεν comp. 3:4, 18:7, 38, and for δέομαι see on 5:12.
ἐπιβλέψαι. 1 aor. inf. Act.; not ἐπίβλεψαι, 1 aor. imper. mid., a tense which perhaps does not occur. It means “to regard with pity”; 1:48; 1 Samuel 1:11, 1 Samuel 1:9:16; Ps. 24:16; Tobit 3:3, 15; Judith 13:4.—For the third time Lk. is alone in mentioning that a child is μονογενής: 7:12, 8:42. Comp. Hebrews 11:17; Tobit 3:15, 8:17; Jdg 11:34.
39. The three accounts differ in describing the symptoms. Mt. has σεληνιάζεται καὶ κακῶς ἔχει. Mk. has ἀφρίζει καὶ τρίζει τοὺς ὀδόνψτας καὶ ξηραίνεται. In Lk.’s description Hobart (pp. 17-20) claims ἐξέφνης, μετὰ ἀφροῦ, and μόγις ἀποχωρεῖ as medical expressions, together with the preceding ἐπιβλέφαι.1 The μόγις occurs here only in N.T. Comp. 3 Mac. 7:6. But μόλις, which is found Acts 14:18, Acts 14:27:7, Acts 14:8, Acts 14:16; Romans 5:7; 1 Peter 4:18, may be the right reading here also (B R etc.). Both μόγος and μόλος mean “toil.” The ἀποχωρεῖν means cessation of convulsions.
40. ἐδεήθην … ἵνα See on 4:3 and on 10:2. The disciples who failed here need not be the Apostles, who were charged to cast out demons (ver. 1). If they were, this one failure was exceptional (Mark 6:12, Mark 6:13).
41. ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος. This probably is neither addressed to the disciples, who had failed to cure the lad, nor includes them. It is addressed to the father, and includes the multitude. Per unum hominem Judæos arguit infidefilitatis (Bede). As in the case of the peralytic (5:20), the faith of those who had charge of the afflicted person is taken into account. This is more clearly brought out in Mk. It was a wish to see what the disciples could do, rather than faith in Divine power and goodness, which prompted the bringing of the boy to them. Possibly it was a wish to see what the disciples could not do that inspired some of them. The hierarchy sometimes attacked Jesus through His disciples (Mark 2:16, Mark 2:18, Mark 2:24, Mark 2:7:5; comp. Luke 13:14). In 12:46 ἄπιστος means “unfaithful,” and in Acts 26:8 “incredible.”
καὶ διεστραμμένη. Not in Mk. It is a strong expression: “distorted, wrong-headed” (Acts 20:30; Php 2:15; Deuteronomy 32:5). Comp. ὀ θυμὸς ἄρχοντας διαστρέφει καὶ τοὺς ἀρίστους ἄνδρας (Arist. Pol. iii. 16, 5); εἰσὶ δʼ αὐτῶν αἱ ψυχαὶ διεστραμμέναι [a.l. παρεστραμ] τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἕξεως (8:7, 7).
ἕως πότε ἔσουμαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς; The notion is that of being turned towards a person for the sake of intercourse; and the question implies that Jesus is not of that generation, or that it is alienated from Him. Comp. Isaiah 55:2. For ἕως ποτε comp. John 10:24; and for πρὸς ὑμᾶς, apud vos, comp. Matthew 13:56; Mark 6:3, Mark 6:14:49; John 1:1, etc. Mt. has μεθʼ ὑμῶν. Vita Jesu perpetua tolerantia (Beng.).
In N.T. and LXX ἀνέχεσθαι has the gen. But in class. Grk., as sometimes in LXX, we have the acc. after ἀνέχεσθαι (Amos 4:7; Amo_4 Mac. 13:27).
42. προσερχομένου αὐτοῦ. This is to be understood of the lad’s approach to Jesus, not of His approach to the lad. Jesus had just said, “Bring thy son hither.”
ἔρρηξεν αὐτὸν τὸ δαιμόνιον. “The demon dashed him down.” The word is used of boxers knocking down, and of wrestlers throwing, an opponent: and some distinguish ῥήσσω in this sense from ῥήγνυμι. Comp. Wisd. 4:19; Herm. Mand. xi .3; Apost. Const. vi. 1. There is also ῥάσσω, like ἀράσσω, in the sense of dashing to the ground (Isaiah 9:10). The expulsion of the demon left the boy in a condition which still required healing. Lk. gives each act separately. Comp. Mark 9:27. For ἰάσατο see small print on 5:17; and with ἀπέδωκεν αὐτὸν τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, which Lk. alone mentions, comp. 7:15 and 8:55.
43. This also is peculiar to Lk., who omits the rebuke to the disciples, thus again sparing them. The division of the verses is unfortunate, half of ver. 43 belonging to one section and half to another. For μεγαλειότητι comp. Acts 19:27; 2 Peter 1:16: Latin texts have magnitudo (Vulg.), magnificentia (e), magnalia (d). The πάντες in the first half of the verse, and the πάντων ἐπὶ πᾶσιν in the second half, strongly illustrate Lk.’s fondness for πᾶς: see on 7:35 and 11:4; and comp. Acts 4:10, Acts 17:30, Acts 21:28, Acts 24:3.
43-45. The Second Announcement of the Passion. Matthew 17:23; Mark 9:31, Mark 9:32.
Besides the πάντων and πᾶσιν, we have as marks of Lk.’s style, θαυμαζόντων ἐπί, the attraction in πᾶσιν οἷς, πρός after εῖπεν (ver. 43), and the analytical ἦν παρακεκελυμμένον (ver. 45). See on 2:33 and 3:19.
43. θαυμαζόντων ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐποίει. See small print on 2:33 and 3:19. The imperfects include more than the preceding incident. It was because, the people were so constantly in an attitude of empty admiration and wonder at His miracles, that Jesus tells the disciples of the real nature of His Messiahship. He is not going to reign as an earthly king, but to suffer as a criminal.
Here d has one of several attempts to reproduce the gen. abs. in Latin: omnium autem mirantium. Comp.et cogitantium omnium (3:15); audientium autem eorum (19:11); quorundam dicentium (21:5); accipientium autem eorum (24:31); hæc autem eorum loquentium (24:36).
44. Θεσθε ὑμεῖς εἰς τὰ ὦτα ὑμῶν. “Do ye lay up in your ears,” in contrast to the gaping crowd. It perhaps means “Store My words in your memories, even if you do not understand them.” Or again, “Do not let men’s admiration of My miracles make you forget or doubt My declarations. It is into men’s hands that I must be delivered.” Comp. δὸς εἰς τὰ Ἰησοῖ (Exodus 17:14). Cod. Am. and other MSS. of Vulg. here have in cordibus vestris. All Grk. MSS. have εις τὰ ὦτα ὑμῶν. This is one of several places in which Jerome seems to have had a Grk. text which is no longer extant. Comp. erat Petrus (22:55), hic nos esse (Mark 9:5), Moses in quo vos speratis (John 5:45); also John 6:12, John 7:25, John 9:38, John 10:16. The last (ovile, ovile for αὐλή, ποίμνη) is crucial.
ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου μέλλει. The γάρ is almost “namely”: “For what you may believe without doubting is this, that the Son of Man,” etc. The παραδίδοσθαι perhaps does not refer to the act of Judas, but to the Divine will. When His hour was come, the plots against Him were allowed to succeed.
45. ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπʼ αὐτῶν. A Hebraism, occurring here only in N.T. Comp. Ezekiel 22:26, and the subst. Wisd. 17:3. More often we have ἀποκρύπτειν ἀπὸ: 10:21; Jeremiah 32:17; or κρύπτειν ἀπό: Matthew 11:25; Psalm 37:10. Lk. alone states that this ignorance of the disciples was specially ordered for them. The ἵνα here has its full telic force. They were not allowed to understand the saying then, in order that they might remember it afterwards, and see that Jesus had met His sufferings with full knowledge and free will. Comp. 18:34, 24:16.
It is strange that this mention of their want of understanding should be attributed to a wish to abase the Twelve in the interests of S. Paul: for (1) it is plainly stated that they were prevented by God from understanding; and (2) Mk. mentions their ignorance no less than Lk. We saw above that Lk. omits the rebuke for want of faith addressed to the disciples who failed to heal the demoniac boy. See on ver. 43 and 8:24.
46-50. The Close of the Galilean Ministry. Two Lessons in Humility. Matthew 18:1-7; Mark 9:33-39. We learn from the other two that this took place after the return from the neighbourhood of Cæsarea Philippi to Capernaum (Matthew 17:24; Mark 9:33). The dispute took place during the journey, the comment on it at Capernaum. See notes on 22:24-30.
46. Εἰσῆλθεν δὲ διαλογισμὸς ἐν αὐτοῖς. See small print on 1:17 and 7:17. It is not necessary to confine the διαλογισμός to their thoughts (see on 5:22), and thus make a difference between Mk. and Lk. But the desire of each to be pronounced the superior was probably not expressed in the discussion; and this thought Jesus read and rebuked. Bede explains the occasion of the dispute to be quia viderant Petrum, Jacobum, et Joannem seorsum ductos in montem, secretumque eis ibi aliquod esse creditum. The ἐν αὐτοῖς, “among them,” rather implies that the reasoning did not remain unexpressed.
τὸ τίς ἂν εἴη. “The question, who perchance might be,” wer wohl wäre: see on 3:15 and 6:11; also Burton., § 179. For this use of τό see on 1:62, and comp. 19:48, 22:2, 4, 23.
μείζων αὐτῶν. Although αὐτῶν does not here immediately follow τίς as it does 22:24 (see notes), yet doubtless αὐτῶν is the gen. after τίς and not after μείζων. Whether anyone outside their company was greater than they were, was not a question which interested them. The point in dispute was, who among themselves was greater than the rest of them; who stood nearest to the Christ, and had the highest place in the Kingdom (Mt.). The question illustrates the want of perception just mentioned (ver. 45).
47. τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν. The discussion in words was, Who is the greatest? The thought in their hearts was, Am not I the eatest? Will the Master decide? Comp. 5:22, 6:8.
ἐπιλαβόμενος παιδίον. The action indicates that the child belongs to Him, is one of His: it represents the humblest among His followers. For other instances of Christ’s attitude towards children comp. 10:21, 17:2, 18:16; Mark 10:15, etc.
In N.T. and LXX the mid. only of ἐπιλαμβάω is used, sometimes with the acc. (Acts 9:27, Acts 16:19, Acts 18:17), sometimes with the gen. (Acts 17:19, Acts 17:21:30, Acts 17:33; with gen. always in LXX). Here and 23:26 the acc. is probably right (B C D, Orig.), but the reading is uncertain.
παρʼ ἑαυτῷ. The place of honour. As Jesus was sitting with is disciples round Him (Mark 9:35), παρʼ ἑαυτῷ would be the same as ἐν μεν μέσῳ αὐτῶν (Mt. and Mk.). Syr-Sin. has “beside them”
The late tradition, that Igantius was the child who was thus taken up by our Lord, probably arose from a misunderstanding of the name Θεοφόρος, which means “bearing God” in himself, and not “borne by God” (Θεόφορος). Even if Θεόφορος be the right accentuation, we must interpret “borne along and inspired by God” rather than “carried in the Divine arms.” The identification was unknown to Eusebius, who does not mention it, and to Chrysostom, who states that Ignatius had not even seen Christ (Hom. in Ign. Mart. iv.). It cannot be found earlier than the ninth century (Anastasius Bibliothecarius, Migne, cxxix. 42; Nicephorus Callistus, H. E. ii. 35, Migne, clxiii. 848). See Lft. Ignatius, i. p. 27, ii. p. 22.
48. In this saying of Christ there is again (comp. vv. 23, 24) almost exact verbal agreement in the three reports.
τοῦτο τὸ παιδίον. Or any similar little one, ἕν π. τοιοῦτο (Mt.), ἓν τῶν τοιούτων π. (Mk.). The child is not the type of the honoured disciple; but the honoured disciple is he who welcomes little children, not because he is fond of children, but because they belong to Christ.
ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου. “On the basis of My Name.” He knows that he is dealing with something which concerns Christ and belongs to Him, and he welcomes it for Christ’s sake. The phrase is specially common in Lk. (ver. 49, 21:8, 24:47; Acts 4:17, Acts 4:18, Acts 4:5:28, 40, Acts 4:15:14; comp. Luke 1:59); not in Jn. or Paul.
ἐμὲ δέχεται … ἐμὲ δέξηται. The pronoun is emphatic.
ὁ γὰρ μικρότερος, κ.τ.λ. Not in Mk. or Mt. It explains how it is that to welcome a child for Christ’s sake is to welcome the Father, for promotion in the Kingdom depends upon self-abasement. Both ὁ μικρότερος and μέγας are objective; really in a lowly position, really exalted. He who does the humble work of serving the insignificant is promoted by God. It is the chief proof of the Messiah’s presence that the poor have the Gospel preached to them (7:22).
ἐν πᾶσιν ὑμῖν. “Among you all.” The circle of the disciples is the sphere in which this holds good. For ὑπάρχων see on 8:41 and 23:50.
ἐστιν μέγας. Already ipso facto “is great”; not merely ἔσται (A D). Jesus does not say “is the greatest”; and He thus gives no encouragement to the desire to be above others. It is possible for all in the Kingdom to have this greatness, and there is no need for anyone to measure himself against others. The standard is Christ
Syr-Sin. reads, “He that is small and is a child to you, that one is great.”
49, 50. A Second Lesson in Humility, the Humility of Toleration. Mark 9:38-40. The ἀποκριθείς in ver. 49 shows, that there is connexion with what precedes, but the precise link is not certain. The common explanation, that Christ’s ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου suggests to John’s mind the case of the stranger who cast out demons ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι, is possible. But it is perhaps more likely that Christ’s declaration about the blessedness of giving a welcome to the humblest of His followers has aroused misgivings in John’s mind. His words are those of one who defends his conduct, or at least excuses it, and might be paraphrased, “But the principle just laid down must have limits, and would not apply to the case which I mention”; or, “But one who remains outside our body is not really a follower of Thee, and therefore ought not to receive a welcome.” John does not mean that the man was not an Apostle, but that he was not a professed disciple. Jealousy for the credit of their Master, not jealousy for their own prerogatives, prompted the Apostles1 to forbid this man from making use of the Name.
The reading ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου (א B L X D Ξ 1 33 69) is to be preferred to ἐπὶ τ. ὀν. (A C D), and is not to be discarded because it is also found in Mark 9:38. On the expression see Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 147.
49. Ἐπιστάτα, εἴδαμέν τινα. See on 5:5 and 26. Mk. has Διδάσκαλε. The exorcist was not pretending to be a disciple of Jesus when he was not one. But, in however faulty a way, he believed in the power of the name of Jesus, and tried to make use of it for good (Acts 3:6, Acts 16:18). Contrast the mere jugglery of the Jewish exorcists who tried to use the formula Ὁρκιζω ὑμᾶς τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὅν Παῦλος κηρύσσει as a charm (Acts 19:13-16). Here the context shows that the exorcist was successful, and therefore sincere. The ἐκωλύομεν may mean either “we tried to forbid” or “we repeatedly forbade.” The pres. ἀκολουθεῖ implies persistence in such conduct. For ἀκολουθεῖν μετά τίος comp. Revelation 6:8, Revelation 14:13: the constr. is classical.
50. Μὴ κωλύετε. “Cease to forbid,” not only the person in question, but any such. Comp. 7:13 and the reply of Moses to the demand of Joshua, Κύριε Μωυσῆ, κώλυσον αὐτούς (Numbers 11:29).
ὃς γὰρ οὐκ ἔστιν καθʼ ὑμῶν ὑπὲρ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐστίν . The reading ἡμῶν for ὑμῶν in one or both of these places comes from Mk. The saying, “He that is not with Me is against Me” (11:23, where see note; Matthew 12:30) should be compared with this. There Christ gives a test by which His disciple is to try himself: if he cannot see that he is on Christ’s side, he is against Him. Here He gives a test by which His disciple is to try others: if he cannot see that they are against Christ’s cause, he is to consider them as for it. Renan hastily pronounces the two sayings to be tout à fait opposées (V. de J. p. 229, ed. 1863).
Here the fourth and last division (9:1-50) of the section which treats of the Ministry in Galilee (4:14-9:50) comes to an end, and with it the first main portion of the Third Gospel. The solemn maxim stated in ver. 50 makes a good conclusion to the Galilean ministry, and the narrative manifestly makes a new beginning in ver. 51.
9:51-19:28. THE JOURNEYINGS TOWARDS JERUSALEM
We may regard this as a narrative of the second main period of Christs ministry. Galilee, with Capernaum as a centre, ceases the almost exclusive sphere of His teaching, and we may say that henceforward He has no centre. Although this period is only one-third as long as the preceding one, it is described with much greater minuteness, and the narrative of it is nearly one third longer. It is manifest that Lk. is here employing material which was not used by Mk. or Mt., and we know neither its source or its character. A great deal of it must have been either in writing or stereotyped in an oral form; and a great deal of it would seem to have had an Aramaic original, the translation of which abounds in marks of Lk.’s own style. From 9:51 to 18:14 he is almost alone, and he gives us information which we obtain from no other source. Hence this large tract is sometimes called the “great interpolation” or “intercalation.” It is also the “Peræan section” or “Samaritan section” (comp. 9:51-56, 10:30-37, 17:11-19). An analysis, showing the parallels in Mt., is given in Birks, Horæ Evang pp. 132 ff. Jn. gives us several important incidents belonging to the same period, viz. that which lies between the end of the Galilean ministry and the Passion; but we cannot be certain as to the way in which his narrative is to be fitted into that of Lk. See Hastings, D.B. i. p. 406.
If we had only Mt. and Mk., we might suppose that the journey from Capernaum to Jerusalem for the last Passover occupied at most one or two weeks. Few incidents are mentioned; and, where distances are indicated, not much time is required for traversing them. Lk. lets us see that the time occupied must have been several months. We are constantly reminded that Jesus is on His way to Jerusalem (9:51, 53, 13:22, 33, 17:11, 18:31, 19:11, 28) but the progress is slow, because Jesus frequently stops to preach in different places. The direction of the journeying is only indirectly intimated, first eastwards along the southern part of Galilee, and then southwards through Peræa; but, however long the time, and however circuitous the route, it is a journey from Capernaum to Jerusalem. Jesus seems never to have returned to the neighbourhood of the lake until after His death. Jn. lets us know that during this interval Jesus was twice in Jerusalem; once at the latter part of the Feast of Tabernacles, after which He healed the man born blind; and again at the Feast of the Dedication; besides which there is the visit to Bethany for the raising of Lazarus; but, although there is room in Lk.’s narrative for what Jn. tells, we do not know where to place it. We cannot with any certainty show the correspondence between the two Gospels until Jerusalem is entered for the last Passover. It seems best, therefore, not to follow Wieseler (Chron. Syn. 4., Eng. tr. pp. 289-303), Ellicott (Hulsean Lectures for 1859, pp. 242-343), and in the main Caspari (Chron. Einl. § 126-143, Eng. tr. pp. 167-189), in making Lk. narrate three distinct journeys to Jerusalem, beginning respectively at 9:51, 13:22, and 17:11, but to take his narrative with the indistinctness which he has left. That the journeyings which Jn. has so clearly given really took place, we need not doubt; and nothing in Lk. contradicts Jn.’s narrative; but all interweaving of the two Gospels must be taken as merely tentative arrangement. The thoroughness of Lk. s investigation is once more shown by his giving us eight or nine long chapters of material which is given by no one else; while his honesty is conspicuous in the fact of his not attempting a precision which he did not find in his sources. The whole is largely didactic.
The proposal of Halcombe, to transfer the whole of Luke 11:14, Luke 11:21 from the place which it occupies in all MSS. and Versions to the break between 8:21 and 22, is too violent a method of arriving at harmony (Gospel Difficulties, or the Displaced Section of S. Luke, Camb. 1886). The amount of harmony obtained in this way is trifling (Luke 9:14-26 with Matthew 12:22-30 and Mark 3:22-30, and perhaps Luke 13:18, Luke 13:19 with Matthew 13:31, Matthew 13:32 and Mark 4:30-32), and it is simpler to suppose that Luke 11:14-26 and 13:18, 19 are given out of their chronological order, or that the sayings of Christ there recorded were uttered more than once. Mackinlay’s theory is no help.
The historical truth of this independent portion of Lk’s Gospel is guaranteed (1) by the absence of discrepancy with the other Gospels, but chiefly (2) by the fact that it consists almost entirely of discourses which it would have been altogether beyond Lk.’s powers to invent. For convenience we may divide this long section into three parts: 9:51-13, 35, 14:1-17:10, 17:11-19:28. See Herzog, Pro_2 art. Jesus Christ, p. 659.
9:51-13:35. The Departure from Galilee and First Period of the Journey
This section begins, as the previous one ends, with a lesson of toleration. In the one case the Apostles were taught that they were not to take upon themselves to hinder the work of an apparent outsider who seemed to be friendly. Here they are taught not to take upon themselves to punish professed outsiders who are manifestly unfriendly. Moreover, as the ministry in Galilee is made to begin with a typical rejection of Christ at Nazareth; (4:16-30), so this ministry outside Galilee begins with a rejection of Him by Samaritans.
The thoroughly Hebrew cast of the opening sentence seems to show that the source here used was either an Aramaic original which Lk. translated, or a translation from the Aramaic which he modified.
As marks of his style note ἐγένετο, ἐν τῷ c. infin., συμπληροῦσθαι, τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀναλήμψεως, καὶ αὐτός, τους, c. infin. (ver. 51); ἐδέξαντο, ἧν πορευόμενον (ver. 53).
51-56. § Rejection by the Samaritans and Rebuke to the Disciples. Here we have what was perhaps a new departure in our Lord’s method, viz. the sending messengers in advance to prepare for His arrival. The Baptist had prepared the way for Christ’s work as a whole, but he had not gone beforehand to the places which Christ proposed to visit. The shortness of the time which still remained may have made a system of preparatory messengers necessary; and this is perhaps the meaning of the opening words.
51. ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τᾶς ἡμέρας. “When the days were being fulfilled” i.e. when the number of days allotted to the interval was drawing to a close. The verb occurs in N.T. only 8:23 and (exactly as here) Acts 2:1, but with συνπλ. for συμπλ. See Gregory, Prolegom. p. 74. Comp. εἰς συμππλήρωσιν, 2 Chronicles 36:21; Daniel 9:2 (Theod.). For the constr. see on 3:21; and for “the days of” see on 1:39. See also on 1:57.
τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ. “Of His assumption,” i.e. the Ascension.
The substantive ἀνάλημφις does not occur elsewhere in N.T. or LXX. But in Test. XII. Patr. Lev_18, it is found, and in this sense, of the new Priest who is to be magnified in the world ἓως ἀναλήψεως αὐτοῦ. In Ps. Sol. 4:20 it is used in a neutral sense of mere removal from the world. The wicked Man is to have his old age in the solitude of childlessness until he be taken away (εἰς ἀνάληψιν); which is perhaps the first appearance of the word in extant Greek literature. See Ryle and James, ad loc. They show that this neutral sense is exceptional, and that about the time when S. Luke wrote the word was probably becoming a sort of technical term for the “Assumption of the Blessed.” Erunt enim a morte et receptione mea usque ad adventum illius tempora c c l quæ fiunt (Assump. Mosis, x. 12). Comp. Et videbunt qui recepti sunt homines, qui mortem non gustaverunt a nativitate sua (4 Esr. 6:26); Initium verborum Esdræ priusquam assumeretur (Inscription at 4 Esr. 8:20); Et in eis raptus est Esras et assumptus est in locum similium ejus (4 Esr. 14:49). See also the passage in which Enoch describes his own translation (70:1, 2). The verb ἀνελήμφθη is freq. in N.T., and may be called the usual biblical expression for ascending to heaven: Mark 16:19; Acts 1:2, Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22, Acts 1:10:16; 1 Timothy 3:16; comp. 1 Mac. 2:58; Ecclus. 48:9, 49:14; 2 Kings 2:11.
The proposal of Wieseler and Lange to make ἀναλήμψις mean His “acceptance among men” (whether among the Galileans in particular or among Israel in general) is not worthy of much consideration. See Trench, Studies in the Gospels, p. 215; Suicer, Thesaurus, s.v.; Oosterzee, ad loc.
τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν. A Hebraism: Comp. Jeremiah 21:10; Ezekiel 6:2, Ezekiel 13:17, Ezekiel 15:7, Ezekiel 20:46, Ezekiel 21:2, Ezekiel 25:2, etc. See Gesenius, Thes. p. 1109, on the same form of expression in Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, and Persian. It implies fixedness of purpose, especially in the prospect of difficulty or danger: comp. Isaiah 50:7. The ἐστήμισεν for ἐστήριξεν is late; for reff. see Veitch, s.v. For τοῦ πορεύεσθαι see on 2:24.
52. ἀπέοτειλεν ἀγγέλους. It is vain to speculate who these were. Probably it was a new measure; but perhaps was no more than a temporary precaution, owing to the probability of unfriendly treatment in Samaritan territory. See on ἀπέσταλκεν 6:18.
πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ. Another Hebraism: comp. 7:27, 10:1; Exodus 32:34, Exodus 32:33:2, Exodus 32:34:6; Leviticus 18:24; Numbers 33:52; Deuteronomy 1:21, etc.
Σαμαρειτῶν. Jesus is taking the direct route from Galilee to Judæa. This is the first mention of the Samaritans by Lk. Comp. 10:33, 17:16; Matthew 10:5; John 4:9, John 4:39, John 4:8:48; Acts 8:25. Mk. does not mention them. For the more important treatises in the copious literature on the subject see Schürer, Jewish People, ii. 1, p. 5; Herzog, Proverbs 2:13: pp. 351-355; Schaff’s Herzog, 3 4. p. 2104; Hausrath, N.T. Times, 1. pp. 14-27; Edersh. L.& T. 1. pp. 394-403, Hist. of J. N. p. 249.
ὡς ἑτοιμάσαι αὐτῷ. This (א B), and not ὥστε, seems to be the true reading. Comp. Acts 20:24, if ὡς τελειῶσαι is right there: also 3 Malachi 1:2; Mal_4 Mac. 14:1. Purpose is implied. No case of ὡς c. infin. denoting result is found in N.T. Burton., § 372.
53. οὐκ ἐδέξαντο αὐτόν, ὅτι. The feeling was reciprocal. Some Jews taught that a Samaritan’s bread was as defiling swine’s flesh: comp. John 4:9, John 4:20. The fact that He was on His way to keep a feast at Jerusalem, thus repudiating the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim, increased the animosity of the Samaritans. Jos. Ant. xx. 6, 1; B. J. ii. 12. 3-7; Vita, 52; Wetst; on John 4:20.
τὸ πορόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον. Another Hebraism: comp. 2 Samuel 17:11. Galileans in journeying to Jerusalem often went round by Peræa, in order to avoid the churlishness of the Samaritans: and this our Lord may possibly have done after this attempt to bring Jews and Samaritans together as guests and hosts had failed. The hospitality which He had received at Sychar many months before this (John 4:40) would not abolish the prejudices of all Samaritan towns and villages for ever.
54. ἱδότες δέ. They saw the messengers returning from their fruitless errand. Their recent vision of Elijah on the mount may have suggested to them the calling down fire from heaven. The two brothers here, and perhaps also in ver. 49, show their fiery temper as “sons of thunder.” Yet Lk., who alone gives this illustration of the title, does not give the title itself (Mark 3:17). Quid mirum filios tonitrui fulgurare voluisse? (Ambrose).
Θέλεις εἴπωμεν. For the constr. comp. 18:41, 22:9; Matthew 20:32; Mark 10:51: Soph. O. T. 650. In class. Grk. this constr. is more common with βούλομαι; but in N.T. θέλω is about five times as frequent as βούλομαι, which in mod. Grk. has almost gone out of use. Note that ἵνα, which sometimes follows θέλω, is not inserted when the first verb is in the second person and the second verb in the first person. Win., xli. 4. b, p. 356; Burton., § 171. Syr-Sin.has “Our Lord” for Κύριε.
The words ὡς καὶ Ἡλίας ἐποίησεν (A C D X etc.) are probably a gloss. That they were omitted (א; B L Ξ) because some Gnostics used them to disparage the O.T., or because they seem to make Christ’s rebuke to the disciples a condemnation of Elijah, is not probable. Rendel Harris thinks that the insertion is due to Marcionite influence both in this case and the next (Study of Codex Besæ p. 233, in Texts and Studies, ii. 1). There is less doubt about καὶ εἶπεν Οὑκ οἲδατε ποίου πνεύματός ἑστε (D F K M etc); and least of all about ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς τους ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἀνθρρώπων ἀπολέσαι ἀλλὰ σῶσαι (Ϝ Κ Μ etc.). These two may safely be omitted as later additions to the text. In the last of them there are several variations in the witnesses which insert the words. Some omit γάρ, some omit ἀνθώπων, and some have ἀποκτεῖναι for ἀπόλεσαι. WH. ii. App. pp. 59, 60; Sanday, App. ad N.T. pp. 118, 119.
It is quite possible that Οὐκ ὄδατε ποίου πνεύματός ἐστε is a genuine saying of Christ, although no part of this Gospel. The remainder, ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς, κ.τ.λ., may be an adaptation of Matthew 5:17 and [18:11] (comp. Luke 19:10), and could more easily have been constructed out of familiar materials.
For other instances of what may be Marcionite influence upon the text see 4:16 and 23:2.
55. στραφεὶς δέ. “But (instead of assenting to their proposal) He turned.” He was in front, and the disciples were following Him. Syr-Sin.omits στραφείς as well as the three clauses.
56. ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην. Although ἑτέραν might very well mean a village of another kind, yet the probability is that it does not mean a non-Samaritan village. The difference lay in its being friendly and hospitable. There is no intimation that Jesus abandoned His plan of passing through Samaria and turned back to go round by Peræa. Moreover, to have gone away from all the Samaritans, because one Samaritan village had proved inhospitable, might have encouraged the intolerant spirit which He had just rebuked. With Hahn, Baur, Schenkel, and Wieseler we may assume that this other village was Samaritan also, although there is a strong consensus of opinion the other way.
57-62. Three Aspirants to Discipleship warned to count the cost. In part also in Matthew 8:19-22. The section is well summarized in the chapter-heading in AV. “Divers would follow Him, but upon conditions.” The first two instances are common to Lk. and Mt.; the third is given by Lk. alone. But Mt. has the first two in quite a different place, in connexion with the crossing to the country of the Gadarenes (8:19-22). Lk. connects the three instances with the final departure from Galilee and with the mission of the Seventy. That he understands these aspirants to be three of the Twelve is manifestly incorrect (6:13); and it is uncertain whether he regards all three incidents as having taken place at one and the same time. It is probable that they were grouped together because of their similarity, and that two were already so grouped in the source which both Mt. and Lk. seem to have used.
57. Καὶ πορευομένων αὐτῶν. The most natural, though not certain, reference is to the preceding ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην. But it may almost equally well refer to πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ (ver. 51), and quite possibly to some journey otherwise unmentioned.
For the simple καὶ (א B C L X Ξ) A G D L P etc. have ἐγένετο δέ, and f Vulg. factum est autem; while D has καὶ ἐγένετο, and a c d e et factum est.
ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ. Like κλασμάτων (ver. 17) and κατὰ μόνας (ver. 18), these words can be taken either with what precedes or what follows. The Vulgate is as ambiguous as the Greek: ambulantibus illis in via dixit quidam ad illum. Beza has quidam in via dixerit; but Luther and all English Versions take the words with what precedes. Comp. 4:1, 5:24, 6:18, 8:15, 39, 10:18, 11:39, etc.
εἶπέν τις. Mt. has εἷς γραμματεὺς εἶπεν. The man had been a hearer, and now proposes to become a permanent disciple, no matter whither Jesus may lead him. To restrict the ὅπου ἐὰν ἀπέρχῃ to the journey then in progress, or to the different routes to Jerusalem (Schleierm.), is very inadequate. On the other hand, there is no sign that the man thinks that he is making a very magnificent offer. His peril lies in relying on his feelings at a moment of enthusiasm.
Here, as in John 8:21, John 8:22, John 8:13:33, John 8:36, John 8:18:20, John 8:21:18, we have ὅπου for ὅποι, a word which does not occur in bibl. Grk.
WH. have ἐάν (A B C K L U Ξ 33 69) in their small ed., with Lach. Treg. In the large ed. they have ἄν (א D), with Tisch. RV. “Predominantly ἄν is found after consonants, and ἐάν after vowels; but there are many exceptions” (ii. App. p. 173).
The κύριε after ἀπέρχῃ (A C G D L R, f q δ Syr. Goth.) may safely be omitted (א B D L Ξ, a c Vulg. Syr-Sin. Boh. Arm.).
58. Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν. Jesus knows the measure of the scribe’s enthusiasm. He also knows whither He Himself is going, viz. to suffering and to death. He warns him of privations which must be endured at once. The scribe was accustomed to a comfortable home; and that must be sacrificed: comp. 18:22; Matthew 20:22. For other cases in which Jesus checked emotional impulsiveness see 11:27 and 22:33. Foxes and birds are mentioned, not as representatives of the whole animal world, but as creatures which lead a vagabond life. Comp. Plut. Tib. Grac. ix.
Jdg 15:4 the form ἀλώπηκας is well attested: φωλεός occurs nowhere else in bibl. Grk, excepting Matthew 8:20, where see Wetst. for illustrations of the use of the word for lairs of animals. Syr-Sin. inserts “Verily” here.
κατασκηνώσεις. Lit. “encampings,” and so “encampments, abodes.” Therefore “roosts” would be better than “nests.” Only for a short time in each year does a bird have a nest. Here Vul, has nidos, in Mt. tabernacula with nidos in many MSS. Here d has habitacula. In both places many texts add to nidos the gloss ubi requiescant. In Ezekiel 37:27 and Wisd. 9:8 κατασκήνωσις (tabernaculum) is used of Jehovah encamping among His people: comp. Tob. 1:4 and Ps. Song of Solomon 7:5.
οὑ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ. Not because of His poverty, but because of the wandering life which His work involved, a life which was now more unsettled than ever. Nazareth had cast Him out; of His own choice He had left Caperaum; Samaritans had refused to receive Him: in the intervals of necessary rest He had no home.1 For the constr. see 12:17.
59. Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς ἕτερον. Mt. tells us that this man was ἕτερος τῶν μαθητῶν, i.e. one of the casual disciples, who is now invited to become a permanent follower.
Quite without reason Clem. Alex identifies him with Philip, pobably meaning the Evangelist (Strom. iii. 4, 522, ed. Potter). So also Hilgenfeld, who identifies the scribe of ver. 57 with Bartholomew. Lange would make this second case to be the desponding Thomas, and the scribe to be Judas Iscariot (L.J. ii. p. 144, Eng. tr.). Keim more reasonably remarks that it is futile to attempt to discover the names by mere sagacity (Jes. of Nas. iii. p. 270).
Ἐπίτρεψόν μοι πρῶτον ἀπελθόντι θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου. The most obvious meaning is the best. His father is in extremis or has just died, and the funeral will take place almost immediately (Acts 5:6, Acts 5:10). Perhaps Jesus can wait; or he may be allowed to follow later, after he has performed the sacred duty of burial (Genesis 25:9; Tobit 4:3). “I must first bury my father” is an almost brutal way of saying, “I cannot come so long as my father is alive”: and to have put off following Jesus for so indefinite a period would have seemed like unworthy trifling. Yet Grotius and Hase (Gesch. Jesu, § 41), adopt this.
The κύριε before ἐπίτρεψον is of doubtful authority, and may come from Matthew 8:21: om. B* D V, Syr-Sin. For the attraction in ἀπελθόντι see on 3:19. Mt. has ἀπελθεῖν καὶ θάψαι.In vv. 59 and 60 Lk., has his favourite εῖπεν δέ, which Mt. has in neither place.
60. Ἄφες τοὺς νεκροὺς θάψαι τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς. Comp. 8:51. The apparent harshness and obscurity of the saying is a guarantee for its authenticity. “Leave the spiritually dead to bury their own dead.” There will always be plenty of people who have never received or have refused the call to a higher life; and these can perform the ordinary duties of the family and of society. These lower duties are suitable to them,—τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς. For a similar change of meaning from the figurative to the literal comp. John 5:21-29, where vv. 21-27 refer to spiritual resurrection from sin, vv. 28, 29 to actual resurrection from the grave; also John 11:25, John 11:26, where “die” is used in a double manner. To take νεκρούς in both places as figurative, implies that the father is spiritually dead. To take νεκρούς in both places as literal, gives the harsh meaning, “Leave the dead to take care of themselves.”
This disciple needs to be told, not of the privations of the calling, but of its lofty and imperative character. The opportunity must be embraced directly it comes, or it may be lost; and therefore even sacred duties must give way to it. Moreover, like the high priest (Leviticus 21:11) and the Nazirite (Numbers 6:6, Numbers 6:7), his will be a consecrated one, and he must not “make himself unclean for his father or for his mother.” Comp. Matthew 10:37; Ezekiel 24:16. By the time that the funeral rites were over, and the cleansed from pollution, Jesus would be far away, and he might, have become unwilling to follow Him.
σὺ δὲ ἀπελθὼν διάγγελλε τ. β. τ. Θ. Mt. omits this charge. Clem. Alex., quoting from memory, substitutes for it the preceding charge, σὺ δὲ ἀκολούθει μοι (loc. cit.). Word by word, it forms a contrast to the man’s request; ἀπελθών to ἀπελθόντι, διάγγελλε to θάψαι, τὴν βασιλείαν to τὸν πατέρα, τοῦ Θεοῦ to μου. “Depart, not home, but away from it; not to bury, but to spread abroad; not a father, but the Kingdom; not thine own, but God’s.” The σύ is emphatic: “But thou, who art not a νεκρός.” Jesus recognizes in him a true disciple, in spite of his hesitation; and the seeming sternness of the refusal is explained. For διάγγελλε, “publish everywhere,” comp. Acts 21:26; Romans 9:17; Psalm 2:7, 58:13; Psa_2 Mac. 3:34. Vulg. has adnuntia; d, prædica: divulga would be better than either.
61. εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος. This third case is not given by Mt., and it probably comes from a different source. On account of its similarity it is grouped with the other two.
Godet regards it as combining the characteristics of the other two. Ces homme s’offre de lui-même, comme le premier; mais il temporise, comme le second. Lange takes the three as illustrations of the melancholy, and phlegmatic temperaments, and thinks that this third may be Matthew.
ἀποτὰξασθαι τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου. “To set myself apart from bid farewell to, them that are at my house.” The case of Elisha (1 Kings 19:20) may have been in the man’s mind. His heart is still with the past. He must enjoy it just once more before he gives it up. Levi had done what this man wished to do, but in a different spirit. He gave a farewell entertainment for his old associates, but in order to introduce them to Christ. The banquet was given to Him (5:29). This man wants to leave Christ in order to take leave of his friends.
In N.T. ἀποτάσσειν occurs only in the middle: 14:33; Acts 18:18, Acts 18:21; Mark 6:46; 2 Corinthians 2:13: abrenunciare (d), renunciare (Vulg.). Comp. ἀποταξάδμενος τῷ βίῳ (Ign. Philad. 11.); οἰ ἀποταξάμενοι τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ (Act. Paul. et Thec. v.). The more classical expression would be ἀσπάζεσθαι τία (Eur. Tro. 1276; Xen. Cyr. i. 3, 2). Comp. also the use of renunciare with a dative: omnibus advocationibus renunciavi (Plin. Ep. ii. 1, 8); non multum abfuit quin vitæ renunciaret (Suet. Galb. 11.) In eccles. Grk. ἀποταγή, ἀπόταξις, ἀποταξία are used of renunciation of the world. See Suicer, ἀποτάσσομαι.
τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου. The τοῖς is masc. with εἰς as a pregn. constr.: “to go to my house and bid farewell to those in it.” Comp. Acts 8:40; Esther 1:5; and see Win. l. 4. b, p. 516. Many texts of Vulg. make τοῖς neut.; renunciare his quæ domi sunt; but Cod. Am. and Cod. Brix. have qui. He would have no need to go home to take leave of his possessions. But even if τοῖς be taken as neut. it is very doubtful whether ἀποτάξασθαι τοῖς, κ.τ.λ., can mean “to set in order the things,” etc., as the Berlenburger Bible takes it. Tertullian has tertium illum prius suis valedicere parentem prohibet retro respectare (Adv. Marcion. iv. 23). Comp. Clem. Hom. xi. 36, xii. 23.
62. ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα ἐʼ ἄροτρον καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ἀπίσω. A proverb: ὃς ἔργου μελετῶν ἰθείην κʼ αὔλακʼ ἐλαύνοι μηκέτι παπταίνων μεθʼ ὁμήλικας, ἀλλʼ ἐὶ ἔργῳ θυμὸν ἔχων (Hes. Opp. 443). Pliny says that a ploughman who does not bend attentively over his work goes crooked: nisi incurvus prævaricatur; inde translatum hoc crimen in forum (N. H. xviii. 19, 49). With βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω comp. 17:31; John 6:66, John 6:18:6; Php 3:13; also μὴ περιβλέψῃς εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω and ἐπέβλεψεν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω (Genesis 19:17, Genesis 19:26).
D and some Lat. texts have εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω βλέπων καὶ ἐπιβάλλων τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπʼ ἀροτρόν. For a similar inversion see 22:42.
εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ. Literally, “is well-placed,” and so, “useful, fit, for the Kingdom of God”; fit to work in it as a disciple of Christ, rather than fit to enter it and enjoy it. When used of time εὔθετος means “seasonable” (Psalm 31:6; Susan. 15). It was a Pythagorean precept, Εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἐπερχόμενος μὴ ἐπιστρέφου, which Simplicius in his commentary on Epictetus explains as meaning that a man who aspires to God ought not to be of two minds, nor to cling to human interests. Jesus says to this man neither “Follow Me” (5:27) nor “Return to thy house” (8:39), but “I accept no lukewarm service” (Revelation 3:16). For the constr. comp. Hebrews 6:7, and contrast 14:35.
Hahn thinks that this third follower, of whom Lk. alone tells us, may possibly be the Evangelist himself, and that this would account for his henceforward telling us so much which no one else records. He combines this conjecture with the hypothesis that Lk. was one of the Seventy, the difficulties of which have been discussed in the Introduction, § 2.
L. J. Leben Jesu
C. Cod. Ephraemi Rescriptus, sæc. 5. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the following portions of the Gospel: 1:2-2:5, 2:42-3:21, 4:25-6:4, 6:37-7:16, or 17, 8:28-12:3, 19:42-20:27, 21:21-22:19, 23:25-24:7, 24:46-53.
These four MSS. are parts of what were once complete Bibles, and are designated by the same letter throughout the LXX and N.T.
A A. Cod. Alexandrinus, sæc. v. Once in the Patriarchal Library at Alexandria; sent by Cyril Lucar as a present to Charles 1. in 1628, and now in the British Museum. Complete.
D D. Cod. Bezae, sæc. vi. Given by Beza to the University Library at Cambridge 1581. Greek and Latin. Contains the whole Gospel.
L L. Cod. Regius Parisiensis, sæc. viii. National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.
Win. Winer, Grammar of N.T. Greek (the page refers to Moulton’s edition).
אԠא Cod. Sinaiticus, sæc. iv. Brought by Tischendorf from the Convent of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai; now at St. Petersburg. Contains the whole Gospel complete.
B B. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. 4. In the Vatican Library certainly since 15331 (Batiffol, La Vaticane de Paul 3, etc., p. 86).
Ξ̠Ξ. Cod. Zacynthius Rescriptus, sæc. viii. In the Library of the Brit. and For. Bible Soc. in London. Contains 1:1-9, 19-23, 27, 28, 30-32, 36-66, 1:77-2:19, 21, 22, 33-39, 3:5-8, 11-20, 4:1, 2, 6-20, 32-43, 5:17-36, 6:21-7:6, 11-37, 39-47, 8:4-21, 25-35, 43-50, 9:1-28, 32, 33, 35, 9:41-10:18, 21-40, 11:1, 2, 3, 4, 24-30, 31, 32, 33.
TR. Textus Receptus.
WH. Westcott and Hort.
RV. Revised Version.
AV. Authorized Version.
D. B. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2nd edition.
G G. Cod. Harleianus, sæc. ix. In the British Museum. Contains considerable portions.
K K. Cod. Cyprius, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.
M M. Cod. Campianus, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.
S S. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. x. In the Vatican. The earliest dated MS. of the Greek Testament. Contains the whole Gospel.
U U. Cod. Nanianus, sæc. x. In the Library of St. Mark’s, Venice. Contains the whole Gospel.
X X. Cod. Monacensis, sæc. ix. In the University Library at Munich. Contains 1:1-37, 2:19-3:38, 4:21-10:37, 11:1-18:43, 20:46-24:53.
Wordsw. Wordsworth (Chr.)
Burton. Burton, N.T. Moods and Tenses.
De W. De Wette.
Euthym. Euthymius Zigabenus.
1 In the Greek Church the Feast of the Transfiguration, Aug. 6th, is called τὸ Θαβώριον. The combination in Psalm 89:12. may be noted.
2 In transfiguratione illud principaliter agebatur, ut de cordibus discipulos um scandalumcrucis tolleretur (Leo the Great, Serm. xliv., Migne, liv. 310).
1 Comp. πασῆς τῆς νυκτὸς … διαγρηγορήσαντες (Herodian, iii. 4, 8).
R R. Cod. Nitriensis Rescriptus, sæc. 8. Brought from a convent in the Nitrian desert about 1847, and now in the British Museum. Contains 1:1-13, 1:69-2:4, 16-27, 4:38-5:5, 5:25-6:8, 18-36, 39, 6:49-7:22, 44, 46, 47, 8:5-15, 8:25-9:1, 12-43, 10:3-16, 11:5-27, 12:4-15, 40-52, 13:26-14:1, 14:12-15:1, 15:13-16:16, 17:21-18:10, 18:22-20:20, 20:33-47, 21:12-22:15, 42-56, 22:71-23:11, 38-51. By a second hand 15:19-21.
1 Hobart adds, “It is worthy of note that Aretæus, a physician of about St Luke’s time, in treating of Epilepsy, admits the possibility of this disease being produced by diabolical agency (Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 27).”
Cod. Am. Codex Amiatimus.
1 It is possible that only John and one other were concerned in ἐκωλύομεν. The incident may have taken place while the Twelve were working two and two. John’s companion was probably James, and this may be another illustration of the brothers’ fiery temper (ver. 54).
V. de J. Vie de Jésus.
Herzog, Herzog’s Protestantische Real-Encyklopädie, 2nd edition.
§ Found in Luke alone.
Hist. of J. N. History of the Jewish Nation.
F F. Cod. Boreeli, sæc. ix. In the Public Library at Utrecht. Contains considerable portions of the Gospel.
1 Plutarch represents Tiberius Gracchus as saying: τὰ μὲν θηρία τὰ τὴν Ἰταλίαν νεμόμενα καὶ φωλεὸν ἔχει, καὶ κοιταῖον ἐστὶν αὐτῶν ἑκάστῳ καὶ καταδύσεις· τοῖς δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἰταλίας μαχομένοις καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσιν ἀέρος καὶ φωτός, ἄλλου δἐ αὐδένος, μέτεστιν.
Clem. Alex. Clement of Alexandria.
Clem. Hom. Clementine Homilies.
And he sent them to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread, neither money; neither have two coats apiece.
And whatsoever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart.
And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.
And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the gospel, and healing every where.
Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;
And of some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.
And Herod said, John have I beheaded: but who is this, of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him.
And the apostles, when they were returned, told him all that they had done. And he took them, and went aside privately into a desert place belonging to the city called Bethsaida.
And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.
And when the day began to wear away, then came the twelve, and said unto him, Send the multitude away, that they may go into the towns and country round about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we are here in a desert place.
But he said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.
For they were about five thousand men. And he said to his disciples, Make them sit down by fifties in a company.
And they did so, and made them all sit down.
Then he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them, and brake, and gave to the disciples to set before the multitude.
And they did eat, and were all filled: and there was taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets.
And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?
They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again.
He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing;
Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.
For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?
For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.
But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God.
And it came to pass about an eight days after these sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.
And as he prayed, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment was white and glistering.
And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias:
Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem.
But Peter and they that were with him were heavy with sleep: and when they were awake, they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him.
And it came to pass, as they departed from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias: not knowing what he said.
While he thus spake, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud.
And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man in those days any of those things which they had seen.
And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down from the hill, much people met him.
And, behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child.
And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him.
And I besought thy disciples to cast him out; and they could not.
And Jesus answering said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.
And as he was yet a coming, the devil threw him down, and tare him. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father.
And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God. But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,
Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.
But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.
Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.
And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,
And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great.
And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us.
And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us.
And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,
And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.
And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.
And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did?
But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of.
For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village.
And it came to pass, that, as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.
And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God.
And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell, which are at home at my house.
And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.